Cover Image
close this bookAPPEAL - Training Materials for Continuing Education Personnel (ATLP-CE) - Volume 2: Post-Literacy Programmes (APEID - UNESCO, 1993, 112 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentFOREWORD
View the documentINTRODUCTION
View the documentChapter 1: Post-Literacy - Principles and Rationale
View the documentChapter 2: Post-Literacy as Part of Continuing Education
View the documentChapter 3: Curriculum Framework
View the documentChapter 4: Design and Development of Materials
View the documentChapter 5: Validation - A Case Study of Post-Literacy Curriculum Development
View the documentChapter 6: An Infrastructure for Post-Literacy
View the documentChapter 7: Implementation and Delivery
View the documentChapter 8: Training of Personnel for Post-Literacy
View the documentChapter 9: Evaluation and Feedback
View the documentAnnex: List of Participants
View the documentBack Cover

Chapter 8: Training of Personnel for Post-Literacy

A. INTRODUCTION

As discussed in ATLP-CE Volume I all types of continuing education programmes should be supported by especially trained continuing educators. A training curriculum for continuing education personnel at three levels of management: level A (national) - senior administrators and policy makers; level B (provincial) - provincial/district supervisors including trainers of Miners and level C (local) - teachers and field consultants.

Level A Personnel require training in broad overall duties and not specifically for different types of continuing education and its management. A general curriculum for training level A personnel is described in ATLP-CE Volume I. At level B and level C continuing education personnel have a broad range of general duties which are concerned with the management and delivery of all types of continuing education. These general duties and tasks are listed below (- see box.) They are discussed in more detail in ATLP-CE volume I.

General Duties and Tasks for Level B Personnel

B.1 Train level C Personnel for the following.

B1.1 Needs analysis
B1.2 Design of curriculum
B1.3 Developing materials
B1.4 Designing training activities

B.2 Establish linkages

B2.1 Foster linkages between agencies involved in CE
B2.2 Mobilize resources and agencies for CE
B2.3 Publicize CE in the province
B2.4 Provide a community-wide consultancy service

B.3 Monitor and Evaluate

B3.1 Monitor and supervise level C
B3.2 Evaluate and report on work of level C
B3.3 Undertake research, including impact studies

B.4 Staff Development

B4.1 Integrate Human Resource Development into CE
B4.2 Organize CE personnel training

General Duties and Tasks for Level C Personnel

C. 1 Promote CE Programmes

C1.1 Promote Understanding of CE programmes
C1.2 Promote understanding of links with national development
C1.3 Apply motivational and communication skills

C.2 Organize CE Programmes

C2.1 Apply relevant management skills
C2.2 Apply skills of working with adults
C2.3 Promote leadership skills
C2.4 Organize alternative learning approaches
C2.5 Develop or adapt learning materials

C2.6 Mobilize resources and organize learning centres

In addition to being trained in these general duties and tasks for continuing education overall, level B and level C personnel need to be trained for specific types of continuing education programmes including post-literacy programmes.

B. SPECIFIC TASKS FOR LEVEL B PERSONNEL

The training curriculum given in ATLP-CE Volume I for level B personnel includes a line of duty in the area of post-literacy. This line is reproduced below and more detailed comments are provided on the relevant tasks.

Specialized Training in Post-literacy for Level B Personnel


DUTY

TASKS

SPECIALIZED

B5

B5.1

B5.2

DUTY




POST-

Organize

Develop a

Promote

LITERACY

Post-literacy

Curriculum

reading and


Programmes

for

other

PROGRAMMES

in the

Post

learning


province

-literacy

centers

DUTY B.5: Organize Post-literacy Programmes in the Province

The continuing education personnel at level B have a key role in post-literacy development since it is their responsibility to organise and overview the delivery of such programmes in their region or province.

Task B5.1: Develop a curriculum in advanced reading and other aspects of post-literacy

All level B personnel, whatever their speciality, should acquire the skills of advanced reading, writing, numeracy and relevant mental skills and be able to train others in these skills. Advanced reading skills include vocabulary building, establishing mental schemes, building general knowledge, critical reasoning and problem solving (see ATLP Volume 10, especially pages 26-27 and 53-54).

Specific competencies include:

· Under the guidance of level A personnel develop a national framework for a post-literacy curriculum with carefully defined standards of competency.

· At provincial/regional level develop a post-literacy curriculum meeting regional needs and being sufficiently flexible to meet local needs.

· Have a clear understanding of the educational and psychological principles on which the curriculum is based.

The training of level B personnel, therefore, should involve a review of the purpose and characteristics of an effective post-literacy programme and of the steps in design and development of (i) a general curriculum framework (ii) the detailed specifications of all aspects of the curriculum.

Level B personnel should also be trained in the training of level C personnel. This should include the design of workshops to develop the competencies of level C in the various tasks they would need to undertake to implement an effective programme of post-literacy.

Task B5.2 Promote reading and other learning centers.

Reading centres, either alone or as part of more general learning centres, are essential components of the infrastructure for CE. Level B personnel should understand how to establish and supervise such centres.

Specific competencies include:

· Basic understanding of additional skills in:

i) the main functions of reading centres and other types of learning centres;
ii) the effective use of resources, i.e. facilities and learning materials;
iii) the roles of post-literacy personnel, in learning centres.

· Being able to organize suitable learning activities and select appropriate learning materials so as to meet the emerging needs of learners.

Training in this area should involve a review of the features of a good learning cent and of its management. Level B personnel should also be familiar with the procedural steps for establishing such centres. Level B personnel also need to be trained in establishing an effective delivery network linking all learning centres with the varied range of providers in the region.

C. SPECIFIC TASKS FOR LEVEL C PERSONNEL

The training curriculum given in ATLP-CE Volume 1 for level C personnel also includes a line of duty in the area of post-literacy. This line is reproduced below and more detailed comments are provided on the relevant tasks.

Specialized Training in Post-literacy for Level C Personnel

SPECIALIZED DUTY POST-LITERACY
PROGRAMMES

DUTY
C3
Conduct and promote post-literacy programmes

TASK
C3.1
Identify and assess neo-literacy

C3.2
Apply advanced literacy techniques

C3.3
Monitor Post-literacy programmes

C3.4
Obtain or develop practical materials

DUTY C.3 Conduct and Promote Post-literacy Programmes

Continuing Education Personnel at level C have the responsibility of facilitating the delivery and presentation of post-literacy programmes as one of their key duties. This means they must be able to identify target groups, assess their needs and encourage participation. They must also understand advanced literacy techniques, especially the mental skills of critical thinking and problem solving necessary for advanced reading. Monitoring is also an important task. Programmes presented in learning centres need to be supervised but more importantly level C personnel need to supervise the work of the many providers in the local area. Level C personnel also should be able to identify and assemble appropriate learning materials and to facilitate production of new materials at local level.

Task C3.1 Identify and assess neo-literates.

It is essential that level C personnel involved in post-literacy programmes have the ability to survey the literacy achievement levels of all adults in their communities.

Specific competencies include:

· Basic techniques of evaluation and assessment;

· Specific evaluation/techniques to assess technical skills of learners according to competency levels - reading, writing and numeracy-using a variety of techniques.

· Evaluation/techniques to assess the mental skills of learners according to competency levels;

· Specialized evaluation techniques appropriate for women and other specific groups.

Training therefore should include workshops on the methodologies of evaluation, and the design of various evaluation instruments, the organisation of data collecting surveys and the analysis and interpretation of data obtained. An important aspect is that the evaluation methods used should be non-threatening and sensitive to the concerns of adults.

Task C3.2 Apply advanced literacy techniques.

While this is an essential skill for those involved in post-literacy work, it is desirable that all level C personnel have competency in this area. Certainly all should be able to encourage local people to read, and help them to read effectively.

Specific competencies include:

· In terms of technical skills to be able to help learners reach competency levels of the exemplar post-literacy curriculum (Chapter 3).

· In term of general mental skills, to be able to help learners reach the highest competency level.

· To apply techniques to encourage adults to read and to continue to progress through the competency levels of the post-literacy programme.

The focus of training, therefore, should be on understanding the standards specified in the post-literacy curriculum and on methods of teaching which will develop the competencies implied by these standards. It is particularly important that level C trainers have skill in helping people develop their ability to construct mental schemes, to think critically and to solve personal and more general social problems.

Task C3.3 Monitor post-literacy programmes.

All level C personnel in this speciality (post-literacy) should know how to assess progress and how to report outcomes, difficulties and successes to level B.

Specific competencies include:

· Good knowledge and understanding of competency standards at the different levels of the post-literacy curriculum.

· Confident use of different forms of assessment approaches, such as observation and other forms of informal data collection.

· Ability to prepare evaluative reports.

Training for this task should not only include a detailed review of the characteristics and standards of the post-literacy curriculum but also should anticipate possible problems and challenges. Programme evaluation and monitoring techniques should be emphasised. Level C personnel should clearly understand the purpose of the monitoring and the use to be made of any report sent to level B.

Task C3.4 Obtain or develop practical post-literacy materials.

In post-literacy work, reading and numeracy materials must be carefully graded by difficulty. Criteria for selecting and/or developing materials at different levels should be known and applied by all presenters.

Specific competencies include:

· Clear understanding of learners needs and their problems in living and learning;

· Knowledge and application of criteria for selecting appropriate materials at different levels;

· Skill in communicating between presenters and learners in the process of teaching and learning;

· Skill in making learning materials more relevant to learners’ needs.

Materials for post-literacy programmes should come from three sources. Firstly materials can be produced centrally, regionally and locally to meet the needs of the post-literacy learners. Secondly, materials can be produced by contracting with local and regional publishers. Thirdly, suitable materials generally available in the community may be acquired. Training of Level C personnel should focus on the characteristics of suitable materials and on how appropriate materials can be selected or produced.

D. CONCLUSION

This chapter provides only very broad guidelines for the training of continuing education personnel for post-literacy activities. In practice detailed strategies and training programmes would need to be designed and developed.

Another important point is that the training for the specific tasks relevant to post-literacy should be seen in the context of continuing education in general. Post-literacy programmes are only one form of continuing education and much of the training should focus on the general principles and practice of continuing education.

Finally, it is also important to stress that as systematic approaches to continuing education are relatively new in the Region, their successful implementation will depend on the emergence of a new cadre of well qualified competent educational personnel. Effective training is the key to this development.