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close this bookAPPEAL - Training Materials for Continuing Education Personnel (ATLP-CE) - Volume 3: Equivalency Programmes (APEID - UNESCO, 1993, 69 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentChapter 1: Definition, Roles and Characteristics of Equivalency Programmes
View the documentChapter 2: Structural Models for Secondary Education Equivalency
View the documentChapter 3: Organizational Infrastructure
View the documentChapter 4: Clientele, Delivery Systems, and Learning Resources
View the documentChapter 5: Curriculum Framework and Materials Design
View the documentChapter 6: Evaluation, Accreditation, and Certification
View the documentChapter 7: A Training Curriculum for Equivalency Programmes Personnel
View the documentChapter 8: Equivalency Programmes and their specific Relationships with Continuing Education
View the documentAnnex: List of Participants
View the documentBack cover

Chapter 5: Curriculum Framework and Materials Design

A. CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK

Equivalency programmes comparable to the formal education channel with equivalent achievement in terms of human development provide opportunities for learners to continue their education.

The curriculum framework and materials design for equivalency programmes should be consistent with the delivery mechanisms earlier discussed which are: a) contact session; b) distance education; and c) self-study (Chapter 4).

The curriculum of a secondary equivalency programme should be equivalent to existing general or vocational formal secondary education to serve the needs of target groups, such as those who have completed primary schooling or its equivalency, or secondary school drop-outs.

Since equivalency programmes are intended to prepare learners to enter the world of work or for further study, the curriculum should be based on identified needs from which goals and objectives to be achieved are derived. Relevant goals and objectives may be shown, as follows:

1. Goals

a) To enable learners through equivalency programmes (EP) to acquire occupational knowledge, attitude and skill (KAS) to enhance their quality of life.

b) To enable learners through EP to adjust to present and future changes in the society as influenced by the development of science and technology.

c) To enable learners through EP to acquire KAS relevant to nation-building and the unity of the nation and at the same time prepare them for further study.

2. Objectives

a) To utilize problem-solving methods in real-life situations.

b) To utilize functional and relevant KAS for self-improvement and to become productive workers.

c) To acquire positive values, appropriate attitudes, and mastery of the national language and functional foreign language to enhance community participation, good citizenship, and international understanding.

d) To attain essential KAS to be able to adjust to societal changes.

e) To gain KAS to be able to continue further study.

Based on these objectives the following content is suggested:

3. Content of Equivalency Programmes

Since equivalency programmes are alternatives to formal education and cross-over between the alternative systems should be possible at every level (grade), it is clear that the content should be appropriate for and acceptable to both systems. If this is not the case, cross-accreditation and mutually recognised awards would not be possible. Nevertheless, programme provided by an equivalency system as an alternative to formal education should recognize that its slant should be towards the needs of its special clientele. It should focus on achieving not only the goals and objectives of the formal system, but special goals and objectives of its own as set out above.

Content should be added or adapted to meet the special goals and objectives and considerable attention should be given to the special needs of adult learners.

The contents which could be emphasised are listed below:

a. Life Situations

1) Problems in real-life situations

a) Health and sanitation
b) Nutrition
c) Family life and family planning
d) Unemployment
e) Environment degradation
f) Others, suited to local situation

2) Problem-solving methods

b. Self-improvement

1) Various existing occupations/job opportunities.

2) Relevant skills to be mastered and how these are applied.

3) Work ethics and values.

4) Constructive labour and industrial relations.

c. community participation and civic consciousness

1) Rights and duties of a citizen.

2) Leadership qualities.

3) Mastery and proper utilisation of the national language and/or functional foreign language.

4) Positive values, i.e. integrity; honesty; patience; industriousness; cultural and national identity.

d. Science and technology

1) Natural and physical sciences.

2) Social and human sciences.

3) Technological innovations/changes and impact on the environment and life-style of the people.

4) Functions and dysfunctions of science and technology.

B. CURRICULUM RESPONSES TO THE GENERAL MODEL OF SECONDARY EDUCATION EQUIVALENCY

As outlined in Chapter 2 the structure of equivalency programmes can be represented by a general model with two major variants to cater for different educational approaches followed by Member States. In this section B a curriculum framework is provided only for the general model. In Sections C and D frameworks are provided for each of the variants. The general model, however, is complicated by the fact that most Member States offer general education and vocational education options within that model, (Figure 2. 1).

This section of chapter 5 describes a curriculum plan for these two options within the General Model. (chapter 2 figure 2.1)

The curricula described are presented as exemplars only and not as models of excellence. Member States would need to develop their own curricula according to their needs and objectives.

B.I A CURRICULUM FOR THE GENERAL EDUCATION OPTION WITHIN THE GENERAL MODEL

The following exemplar is based on the experience of one Member State (Thailand) with some modifications to make it more widely applicable.

a) Curricula for Secondary Certificate level I

(Junior Secondary) - GENERAL EDUCATION OPTION

The curriculum structure for the formal education approach to general education for grades 7, 8 and 9 is given in Table 4.1 and the equivalency alternative is given in Table 4.2.

Table 4.1: SECONDARY FORMAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM LEVER, 1 GENERAL EDUCATION

Subject

Hour/week/term


Grade 7

Grade 8

Grade 9


Required

Elective courses

Required

Core courses

Required

Elective Courses

Core course

Selective course

Core course

Selective course

Core courses

Selective subject

1. Language

1.1 National

4

4

-

4

1.2 Foreign

2. Science - Mathematics

2.1 Science

3

3

-

3

2.2 Mathematics

3

3

-

3. Social Science

2

2

2

2

2

2

4. Life experience

10

10

13

4.1 Physical Education

1

2



1

2



1

2



4.2 Art

1

1

-

1

-

5. World of work

5.1 Job

-

-

2

-

2

5.2 Vocational planning

-

2

-

-

-

-

14

6

10

14

6

10

11

6

13

Sub-Total

30

30

30

Activities

1. Activities mentioned according to the curriculum

30

30

30

2.1 Scouting

1

1

1

2.2 Others

1

1

1

3. Guidance or extra activities

1

1

1

4. Innovative project created by learners

2

2

2

Grand Total

35

35

35


Table 4.2

Notes

Four required courses in the left hand side of the table 4.2 are compulsory and in addition three courses from the right hand side of the table should be selected by the learners

There are interesting differences between the two alternatives. These are summarised in the following table. (Table 4.3)

Table 4.3: Differences Between Formal and Non-Formal Alternatives at Level 1 of Secondary Education (General Education)

Aspect

Formal System

Non-Formal Equivalent

Main objective

To provide general education and to provide for further study at level 2.

To provide both general and semi-skilled vocational education and to prepare for further study at level 2.

Target

Main stream school-age students continuing directly from the completion of primary schooling.

Mainly for more mature age groups who have completed primary schooling but who have dropped out of secondary school.

Delivery

Mainly by conventional classroom instruction

Learners may enrol in any one of three delivery mechanisms (contact session; distance education; or self-learning) or may choose to enrol in all types for each semester depending on the courses taken.

Duration

Three years.

Two years (less than formal system.)

Electives

About one-third Elective

One half elective

Vocational Emphasis

About 4%

Usually about 25%

Methods

Conventional teen-age orientation

Non-formal adult orientation

Cross Accreditator

Informal credits only

Accelerated progression (less than two years) based on certificates received from other vocational training (formal or from private companies)

Award

Certificate awarded after grade 9 examination

Learners receive certificate of completion when all specified course requirements have been accomplished.

Comparisons between the two alternatives indicate a greater degree of flexibility in the non-formal alternative and a greater emphasis on vocational training even though this is a general education programme. The cross creditation programme of experience and training given by other agencies is an important feature of this type of approach.

b) Curricula For Secondary Certification level II

(Senior Secondary) - GENERAL EDUCATION OPTION

The curriculum structure for the formal education grades 10, 11 and 12 is given in Table 4.4 and the non-formal equivalency alternative is given in Table 4.5.

Table 4.4: SECONDARY FORMAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM LEVEL 2

GENERAL EDUCATION

Subject

Grades 10-12


Credits


Required instructional hours per week

Elective Courses


Core subjects

Selective subjects


1. National language

6


Learners must select at least 45 credits provided in the curriculum among

2. Social studies

6



- Language (Thai and/or foreign)

3. Physical Education

3

3


- Social Studies

4. Science

-

6


- Art

5. Vocational foundation

-

6


- Science

-

-


- Mathematics

-

-


- Vocation


Total

15

15


30


Activities

1. Activities mentioned according to the curriculum


one credit/week/term

2. Guidance on life experience


two credits/week/term

3. Innovative project credited by learners


-


Table 4.5:

For secondary grades 10, 11 and 12 there is usually more convergence between the two alternatives in terms of curriculum content although methods and delivery systems may vary. This is particularly the case with the two general education options. This is partly because each of the alternatives must prepare learners for further study and the next level is higher Education (universities, higher vocational polytechnics, junior colleges and the like). Both alternatives emphasise both knowledge and skills within the framework of general education.

Many of the differences between the two alternatives as outlined in Table 4.3 nevertheless remain. The non-formal alternative tends to be adult oriented while the formal alternative is more «school» oriented catering for the needs of adolescents.

Because of the greater convergence between the two alternatives at this level some Member States develop the curriculum of the non-formal equivalency option by borrowing programmes from the formal school system. These programmes, however, are almost always rewritten in the form of do-it-yourself units or modules (with or without kits) or are modified in some other way to fit the needs of more mature learners.

B. II A CURRICULUM FOR THE VOCATIONAL EDUCATION OPTION WITHIN THE GENERAL MODEL

As in the case of the general education option the following exemplar is based on the experience of one Member State (Thailand) with some modifications to make it more widely applicable.

In the interests of brevity an account is given only of secondary level I (grades 7 to 9). Table 4.6 shows the vocational oriented option within the formal system and Table 4.7 gives the structure for the vocational option offered by the non-formal alternative.

Table 4.6: SECONDARY FORMAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM Level I VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

Grades 7 to 9

Subject

Instructional hours

Percentage

1. Foundation cluster*

1,320

25-30

2. Vocational cluster*

1,360

70-75

3. Elective

1,900


3.1 Vocation


3.2 Subject elective


3.3 Practicum

4. Other activities

Total

4,580

*Sample of each cluster

1. Foundation cluster:

- National Language
- Social Science
- Hygiene
- Physical Education
- Science
- Mathematics
- English
- Scouting
- Other appropriate courses related to daily situation

2. Vocational cluster:

Selected according to interests. These are required courses.

Table 4.7: SECONDARY NON-FORMAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM LEVEL 1 VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

Grades 7 to 9

SUBJECT

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3


Required Courses

Elective Courses

Total Credit Units

Required Courses

Elective Courses

Total Credit Units

Required Courses

Elective Courses

Total Credit Units

VOCATIONAL










The World of work

3

-

3

-

3

3

-

2

2

Marketing and Management

3

-

3

-

3

3

-

4

4

Vocational Skills

-

6

6

-

6

6

-

8

8

Practicum

12

-

12

12

-

12

10

-

10

Quality of life

6

-

6

2

4

6

-

6

6

Total

24

6

30

14

16

30

10

20

30

Not surprisingly there is much greater convergence between the formal system and its non-formal equivalent alternative in the area of vocational education as compared with general education.

In both alternatives the aim is to achieve the dual objectives of developing vocational skills and helping individual develop as whole persons. The differences between them stem mainly from the different clientele. As in the case of the general education option learners in the formal system are mainstream teen-age school students continuing into junior secondary directly from primary school. In the non-formal equivalent alternative the learners are those students who did not proceed beyond primary school or who began formal secondary schooling and dropped out.

In the formal system learners are introduced to vocational opportunities and develop both general vocational skills and more specialized skills according to the vocational clusters of their choice (Table 4.6). In the non-formal alternative learners are not only introduced to new skills but also build on existing vocational skills (if any) and learn more to cope with the problems of their daily lives.

In the formal alternative both general and vocational teaching is fairly traditional in regard to methodology. In the non-formal alternative learners are taught, as adults, to search for new knowledge (learning how to learn). Usually in the formal system instruction is in traditional classrooms and workshops. The non-formal alternative has guided instruction in either contact sessions or by self-study.

In the formal system little experiential vocational education is now provided, but in the non-formal alternative learning can be «on job», that is it can be located in factories, farms, shops and so on. In the non-formal alternative actual apprenticeships can be established while this is not yet the case in the formal alternative.

In the formal system credits are entirely internal whilst in the non-formal alternative credits earned from real-life work situations can be accredited to the non-formal «school» in which the learners are enrolled. In both cases, however, the ideal is to allow interchangeable credits between the formal and non-formal alternatives. In many instances, however, because of limitations on the formal system, this accreditation is one way only - from the formal to the non-formal.

The emphasis on a vocational option in both alternatives is important for overall economic and social development, especially in those Member States which have as yet to attain universal secondary education. The objectives of such an emphasis are usually expressed in the following ways: -

a) to respond to government policy in providing alternative vocational education opportunities at secondary education level.

b) To enable people in remote areas to have the educational opportunity to seek further knowledge and technology for self-development in occupation and in earning income in their own local community.

c) To utilize local resources and to develop constructive leaders in communities in organizing training programmes.

d) To develop human resources preparing for the rapidly socio-economic changes of the country.

The main difference between the formal and non-formal alternatives in regard to these objectives is that the non-formal system always aims for immediate application of new knowledge and skill whereas the formal system can afford to have longer-term goals.

C. A CURRICULUM RESPONSE TO VARIANT I OF THE GENERAL MODEL - INTEGRATION OF GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

As discussed in Chapter 2 one variant of the general model of secondary education equivalency is to integrate both general education and vocational education into the one programme rather than presenting them as contrasted options. A structural model for an integrated approach is given in chapter 2 figure 2.2.

The following example is based on the experience of one Member State (Thailand) and is presented as an exemplar. Member States would need to develop their own approach according to their needs and circumstances.

a) First Level Certificate (Junior Secondary) (Grades 7-9). Integrated variant of the General Model.

The curriculum plans for both systems are outlined in Table 4.8.

The main points to emerge from the curriculum plans as outlined in table 4.8 are as follows:

i) when general education and vocational education goals are integrated the formal system can afford to defer specific skills training to later years whereas the non-format system demands immediacy of application;

ii) the content of the general education strand of the formal system tends to dominate both systems, but may be taught more «openly» in the non-formal alternative with an emphasis on the needs of adult learners.

Table 4.8: VARIANT I OF GENERAL MODEL - INTEGRATION OF VOCATIONAL AND GENERAL EDUCATION IN BOTH FORMAL EDUCATION AND ITS NON FORMAL EQUIVALENT

COURSES OF SECONDARY
FORMAL EDUCATION
Grades 7-9

COURSES OF SECONDARY
NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
First Level Certificate

1) National ideology and citizenship education

1) The same content *)

2) Religious education

2) No textbooks, only guidebooks

3) National language I, II, III

3) The same content *)

4) English language I, II, III

4) The same content *)

5) Mathematics I, II, III

5) The same content *)

6) Natural Sciences I. II, III

6) The same content *)

7) Social Sciences I, II, III

7) The same content *)

8) Health education (includes in Natural Sciences) and family planning

8) Special textbook on health education, including nutrition

9) Arts and crafts education

9) No textbook, only guidebook

10) Physical education and sports

10) No textbook, only guidebook

11) -

11) A series of skill-booklets (one should be chosen)

*) The same content (not exactly, because out-of-school equivalency programmes tend to be more real-life oriented), but rewritten in the form of modules, or do-it-yourself learning materials, plus one skill for earning a living which has to be mastered and practised (a series of skill-booklets, one to be chosen).

b) Second Level Certificate (Senior Secondary)

(Grades 10-12). Integrated variant of the General Model

The curriculum structure proposed here is arranged in much the same way as for grades 7-9 but in both alternatives there is greater emphasis on the development of practical skills within one vocational area. The main point of difference between the two alternatives, is that the nonformal, but not the formal, requires these skills to be applied in practise in actual on-job experience.

Another key difference is that, as in the other models, formal education relies mainly on classroom and traditional workshop settings, whereas the non-formal alternative can draw on at least three types of delivery system simultaneously within the one programme - contact sessions, distance learning and self-paced learning.

Another difference is that mastery and actual application of skill is emphasised more in the non-formal alternative.

A further difference is that the non-formal alternative is generally more flexible in the sense that one may study the courses during one’s leisure time and may take examinations either subject by subject, or at once (national examination of non-formal equivalency programmes), or non-formal students may take the general secondary formal education examination after finishing the whole secondary non-formal education equivalency programme. Usually, the time or duration of learning in the non-formal alternative is not constant, it might be shorter or longer than the regular secondary formal education depending on learners’ capabilities.

D. A CURRICULUM RESPONSE TO VA R I A N T 11 OF THE GENERAL MODEL THE SEMI-FORMAL APPROACH

This variant is illustrated in Chapter 2 Figure 2.3.

In some Member States there are some Non-Formal Secondary Equivalency Programmes which represent a compromise between a purely formal and purely non-formal approach. As an exemplar, the situation in one Member State (Thailand) is described below. In some respects the description has been modified to make it more generally applicable.

In this particular Member State there are two types of these so-called semi-formal approach:

a) An Air and Correspondence School. This provides the same three year curriculum of the formal junior secondary school (grades 7-9). The delivery system is, however, quite different in that most of the programmes are implemented through television and radio within a distance education framework. Learning kits are provided suitable for distance education.

b) Equivalency Programmes Attached to Industry. These also cover the same curriculum as the first three years (grades 7-9) of the formal junior secondary school. The difference is that only two-thirds of the formal school programme is covered. The remaining one-third is replaced with an in-factory practicum or by field experience in some other type of work place.

Both these approaches can be considered to be equivalency programmes because they provide educational opportunities for people who have completed primary school but who have not entered formal secondary school or who have started but have dropped out of secondary education.

Learners enrolled in these semi-formal equivalency programmes can get the Secondary Education Certificate which has the same value as the regular secondary formal education certificate. They must sit for the national graduation (accreditation) examinations.

Civil and Trade or Technical Schools may be included in the Industrial Attachment approach. Students in such schools take a condensed 1-2 year course equivalent to the three years of formal junior secondary schooling.

If students in these programmes pass the relevant examinations they can proceed to non-formal equivalents of formal secondary, years 10 to 12.

A comparison between the content of the semi-formal curriculum offered through a non-formal alternative and the curriculum offered by formal secondary schools is summarised for all grades 7 to 12 in table 4.9.

Table 4.9: General Comparisons Between the Curriculum of Formal Secondary School and Semi-Formal Alternatives offered by a Department of Non-Formal Education

a) Curriculum of junior secondary education, grades 7-9

Formal Education

Semi-Formal Approach
(Non-formal Education)

Classification of subjects

All subjects are the same as the formal education curriculum except extra-curricular activities and physical education which are not included in the non-formal education curriculum.

Moral Education


National Language


National History


Social Studies

Mathematics

Science

Physical Education

Music

Fine Arts

There are no elective subjects.

English

All compulsory subjects are offered, but contents are condensed.

Vocational Skill (Boys)


Home Economics (Girls)

Agriculture, Technical,

Commerce, Fisheries,

Housekeeping,

Elective subjects

Extra-curriculum Activities

3 year courses

1-2 year courses

Types of the lower-level secondary NFE are as follows:


- Civic school


- Trade and technical school


- New community youth school

Classes and special schools attached to industry(work experience)


- Evening school
- Special middle school

b) Curriculum of senior secondary education, grades 10-12

Formal Education

Semi-Formal Approach
(Non-formal Education)

Classification

Subjects

Almost the same as the formal education curriculum, but usually physical education, military training and extra - curriculum activities are not included. Usually, most of the upper level secondary NFE programmes do not provide the elective courses.
Also in the foreign language area, only English is included.

Moral Education

Moral Education


National Language

National Language


Literature


Composition


Grammar


National History

National History


Social Studies

Political Economy

Geography

World History

Social Studies and Culture

World Geography

Mathematics

Mathematics (1)

(2)

Science

Science (1-2)

Physics

Chemistry

Biology

Earth Science

Physical Education

Physical Education

Music

Music

Fine Arts

Fine Arts

Foreign Language

English (1.2)

German

French

Spanish

Chinese

Japanese

Industrial Arts & Home Economics

Industrial Arts (Boys)


Home Economics (Girls)

Agriculture

Technology

Commerce

Fisheries

Housekeeping

Formal Education

Semi-Formal Approach (Non-formal Education)

Elective subjects

Extracurricular Activities


3 year courses

1-2 year courses

Types of upper level secondary non-formal education:


- Civic high school


- Trade and technical high school


- Evening high school


- Industry-attached special high school


- Air and correspondence high school

Learning Materials

Regular textbooks according to the subjects

Regular textbooks are the same as for formal education. However, broadcast and correspondence high school materials are also available (modules, or do-it-yourself and broadcast programmes.)

E. CURRICULUM STRATEGIES

Volumes 1 and 2 of ATLP materials have suggested and described a systems approach to developing a curriculum. The steps of the systems approach in curriculum development including the INPUT-PROCESS-OUTPUT (IPO) model for content design and teaching are applicable not only in a general secondary non-formal education curriculum, but also in a secondary vocational non-formal education curriculum. The differences between the curriculum structures would depend upon the policies and needs of the programmes. This section of Chapter 5 briefly considers the following aspects of curriculum development. Evaluation aspects are reviewed in Chapter 6.

- The curriculum plan
- Aims and objectives
- Learning materials
- The roles of GOs and NGOs

a) The curriculum plan

An out-of-school educational programme is an educational programme implemented outside the framework of school and managed in a very flexible way, including the time factor. Like a good formal education programme, an out-of-school educational programme should be organized to provide (a) functional knowledge, or information; (b) relevant skills; and (c) appropriate mental attitudes. The steps in curriculum development for out-of-school (non-formal) equivalency programmes are in essence no different from any other type of curriculum development.

In order to make the programme effective, the curriculum development team comprising of curriculum specialists, trainers, subject specialist teachers and evaluators, should plan to develop the programme, as follows:

i) Study the principles and goals of the national programme.
ii) Identify the target groups.
iii) Conduct needs assessment according to the target groups.
iv) Determine types of programmes in relation to the target groups.
v) Write principles, goals, aims and objectives.
vi) Design the content and teaching materials and plan how to implement the programme.
vii) Plan assessment of the programme.
viii) Try-out and modify the programme.

What makes the development of curriculum for equivalency programmes different from more conventional types of curriculum are the following:

- The target group is a group of youth and adults who have failed to proceed to secondary education or who have dropped-out of secondary education.

- The clientele are mostly mature people who have had considerable experience of life.

- There is an immediacy in the application of the curriculum outcomes.

- The curriculum designers are considerably constrained by having to make their programme equivalent to something else. That is they must thoroughly understand the aims, objectives, content and methodology of the programmes to which their programme is to be an alternative.

The curriculum framework for equivalency programme should be carefully designed to meet clientele needs and local situations. In designing a curriculum, the whole curriculum can be decentralized and divided into 3 parts which make the curriculum actual and local rather than official or central. This idea can be illustrated as follows:


Figure

Local needs are especially important and should be determined jointly by the instructor and learners on whatever topics they may find of interest. Some special curricula can be developed for special groups like hill-tribes, refugees, etc. This makes the curricula relevant and responsive to the needs and interest of the groups.

This aspect is more of a challenge for curriculum designers in the area of equivalency than in almost any other area of continuing education. This is because the programme to which the new course is to be equivalent imposes constraints and boundary conditions. The equivalency curriculum designer is not free to do just what he or she considers to be appropriate. Compromises may have to be made.

b) Aims and Objectives

The aims and objectives of equivalency programmes should be considered in the context of continuing education. The purpose of continuing education is not only to provide education for learners for transfer to formal education or to continue to study in a university, but is also to help them towards self-improvement and self-employment as well as giving them the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for living happily in our changing society. The aim is to lead to active participation in their own community.

Once again the curriculum designer in the equivalency area must perform a «balancing act». These important broad goals and objectives have to be considered in relation to the more specific outcomes of the courses for which the equivalency course is an alternative.

c) Learning Materials

With reference to delivery systems elaborated in Chapter 4 the required learning materials can be divided into different types:

i) Materials for organizers/teachers

- A curriculum book
- A manual in relation to application of the curriculum
- Regulations and accreditation practice
- A manual for administrative work
- A guide/manual for evaluation
- Textbooks
- Audio-visual materials

ii) Materials for learners

- A manual on how to study the selected programmes
- Regulations and accreditation rules
- A manual in relation to application of the curriculum
- Textbooks (these depend on types of delivery systems)
- A-V materials

Since an equivalency programme is alternative to something else, all these materials should carefully review and explicate the characteristics of the two alternatives and the differences (if any) between them. In particular the purpose of the equivalency alternative should be carefully explained.

This aspect is especially important if two-way transfer is possible between the two alternatives for units of work (credits) within each. Unless differences in purpose, content, approach and methods are carefully explained learners taking mixed units from both alternatives will become confused.

d) The Roles of Gas and NGOs

The English Dictionary tells us that to govern means to rule, to control, to manage. GO or governmental organisation is an organisation that has to do with government. NGO or non-governmental organisation is an organisation of the people to work for the betterment of the populace, which must follow the rules made by the government, and is controlled by the government, but not managed by the government. If we accept those descriptions of tasks and responsibilities of GOs and NGOs, then we can easily accept the notion that for the betterment of the people of a country, GO and NGOs must cooperate and work positively together working hard to implement national, provincial, and local development projects in all spheres of life. GOs and NGOs should not perceive each others as different, especially as enemies, but as friends and partners who move together hand-in-hand towards the common goal, or ideal, i.e. a prosperous and just society.

Equivalency programmes in continuing education are the concerns of GOs and NGOs hence both should be actively involved in planning and designing the programmes if implementation is to be successful. In Equivalency programmes the relationship is especially important because of the need to include «on the job» training and other aspects of experiential learning, especially in any non-formal alternatives.