Cover Image
close this bookGender and the Expansion of non-traditional Agricultural Exports in Uganda (UNRISD, 2000, 66 p.)
close this folder6. Gender and NTAE Promotion: Findings from the Field Studies
View the document(introduction...)
View the document6.1 Village Characteristics
View the document6.2 Supply Response
View the document6.3 Labour Constraints
View the document6.4 Other Constraints on Production
View the document6.5 Control and Expenditure of Cash Crop Income

6.5 Control and Expenditure of Cash Crop Income

The study findings suggest that, as elsewhere, women in the villages surveyed tend to emphasize food crops and food security more than do men (table 37). Thus, if crop switching occurs in response to NTAE incentives, this might negatively affect both food security and women within the household. Of course, income generation and food security objectives are linked, and if markets are functioning well, switching to the most productive crops in accordance with comparative advantage should be an effective production strategy (Whitehead, 1991). However, given the recent history of prolonged turmoil in the country, the wide seasonal fluctuations in food prices and the wide marketing margins, confidence in markets is low - and probably rightly so.

Table 37
Crops preferred by farmers and why: Gonve (PRA data)

Women’s preferences

Why

Men’s preferences

Why

1. Cassava

· family food
· can be kept in the dry season
· grows in poor soils
· can be eaten over a long period without getting tired of it

1. Coffee

· sold for cash
· helps to pay school fees
· can be stored
· can be used to pay tax
· easy to look after

2. Beans

· source of protein
· is storable until next season
· keeps children healthy
· first crop grown after dry season

2. Vanilla

· money from it comes in a lump sum
· grows well in our soils
· helps to pay school fees

3. Sweet potatoes

· can be sold for money
· matures fast

3. Cassava

· we can sell some and eat some

4. Plantain

· appreciated as food for the family
· easy to prepare for a quick meal; is tasty and satisfying

4. Sweet potatoes

· we eat them

Table 38
Crops preferred by farmers and why: Kitanyatta (PRA data)

Women’s preferences

Why

Men’s preferences

Why

1. Maize

· it brings in money
· it has a market

1. Maize

· we make money from it
· market is sometimes available
· it grows fast
· we brew beer from it
· it helps pay school fees

2. Groundnuts

· protein source
· it has a market (although prices are too low for the effort)

2. Groundnuts

· we make money from it
· we eat it

3. Beans

· we eat it
· it can also be sold
· it matures early

3. Cassava

· we eat it
· sometimes we sell it
· it grows well around here

4. Cassava

· it is good in days of famine
· it has a market
· can be stored in the soil and picked when needed
· can be used for brewing “waragi”

4. Coffee

· it brings in money
· it has a ready market

Although the income data from the survey are not robust enough to derive quantitative estimates of income changes, table 39 suggests that over the period 1996-97 Gonve showed signs of an increasing specialization in cash crops, and an increased reliance on the market, with households moving away from maize in particular as a cash crop. Kitanyatta, however, showed the opposite pattern (table 40). It had seemingly fewer expenditures from all cash crops, suggesting a reluctance or inability to increase marketed surplus. This evidence, although partial and preliminary, thus suggests that farmers are not compromising food security in response to NTAE incentives.

Table 39
Expenditure of income from cash crops, 1996 and 1997, Gonve (number of households)


1996

1997


Food

Education

Clothing

Medical

Building

Business

Other

Food

Education

Clothing

Medical

Building

Business

Other

Maize

3

3

2

3

0

0

5

2

0

0

0

0

0

3

Beans

0

3

3

2

0

2

3

0

1

0

1

1

1

2

Vanilla

27

35

31

17

14

2

28

35

32

32

14

24

4

31

Cassava

3

6

6

5

0

0

3

7

4

9

3

1

0

6

Coffee

25

36

40

18

15

3

33

42

50

50

24

23

7

34

Others

2

4

5

0

0

0

2

5

2

6

4

2

0

3

Table 40
Expenditure of income from cash crops, 1996 and 1997, Kitanyatta (number of households)


1996

1997


Food

Education

Clothing

Medical

Building

Business

Other

Food

Education

Clothing

Medical

Building

Business

Other

Maize

16

20

64

19

11

4

40

20

12

66

17

14

3

4

Beans

4

1

18

3

2

0

8

5

1

12

2

1

0

0

Cassava

6

1

21

7

2

0

6

8

1

26

2

2

0

1

Coffee

0

1

1

1

0

0

2

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

Others

14

7

31

3

5

3

27

11

3

27

2

3

5

0

It is interesting to note that cassava is a significant cash crop in both villages, suggesting that it may be useful to take cassava more seriously as an important cash crop in the region. Cassava is an important “famine food” and source of food security. Farmers find it easy to grow and to store, and there is a ready market for it in Kenya, the Sudan, and the Republic of Congo. Increased extension services and the introduction of more pest-resistant varieties may make cassava a readily accepted, efficient and viable cash crop.

The survey also sought an indication of how men and women control productive resources and share the rewards of the cash income from agriculture (table 41).

Table 41
Authorization of expenditure of cash crop income Gonve and Kitanyatta, 1997 (number of households)


Gonve (n = 197)

Kitanyatta (n = 199)


Husband

Wife

Child

Other

Husband

Wife

Child

Other

Maize

2

1

0

0

71

35

4

4

Beans

3

3

0

0

12

2

0

0

Vanilla

66

43

1

0

0

1

0

0

Cassava

10

11

0

1

22

11

0

0

Coffee

93

44

2

0

1

0

0

0

Other

7

3

1

0

36

15

1

0

The figures in table 41 suggest that women have a significant degree of control of cash crop income, authorizing its expenditure in 30 per cent or more of households. However, the picture is different if the data are disaggregated by total expenditure instead of numbers of households (because of data constraints, this is only possible for vanilla and coffee in Gonve). Table 42 indicates that over 90 per cent of the income from vanilla and coffee is controlled by men.

Table 42
Authorization of expenditure of cash crop income Gonve (Ugandan shillings)


Vanilla

Coffee

1996

Income

%

Income

%

Male

12,095,000

90.7

30,086,750

93.0

Female

1,240,500

9.3

2,271,000

7.0

Total

13,335,500


32,357,750


1997





Male

14,079,000

90.1

31,704,250

90.1

Female

1,550,950

9.9

3,479,000

9.9

Total

15,629,950


35,183,250


The survey respondents were asked to state who spent the income earned from the sale of crops and to list the items on which this income was spent. The results, disaggregated by gender, are given in tables 43 and 44.

Table 43
Husbands' and wives' expenditure patterns, number of households (Gonve)


1996

1997


Husband

Wife

Husband

Wife


No.

% (rank)

No.

% (rank)

No.

% (rank)

No.

% (rank)

Food

25

13.2(3)

36

26.3(1a)

63

23.4(1)

42

29(1)

Education

36

18.9(1)

26

19(2)

35

13(3a)

26

17.9(3)

Clothing

30

15.8(2)

36

26.3(1b)

47

17.5(2)

34

23.4(2)

Medical

19

10(5)

9

6.6(3)

18

6.7(4)

11

7.6(4)

Land/building

23

12.1(4)

2

1.5(4)

35

13(3b)

4

2.8(5)

Business

13

6.8(6)

1

0.7(5)

16

5.9(5)

2

1.4(6)

Other/labour/ bicycles

14

23.2

27

19.7

55

20.4

26

17.9

Total

190

100

137

100

269

100

145

100

Table 44
Husbands' and wives' expenditure patterns, number of households (Kitanyatta)


1996

1997


Husband

Wife

Husband

Wife


No.

% (rank)

No.

% (rank)

No.

% (rank)

No.

% (rank)

Food

22

12.2(3)

14

21.2(1)

30

15.1(2)

14

20.3(2)

Education

15

8.3(5)

2

3(4b)

16

8(5)

2

2.9(6)

Clothing

26

14.4(2)

11

16.7(2)

33

16.6(1)

15

21.7(1)

Medical

20

11.1(4)

6

9.1(3a)

21

10.6(4)

9

13(3)

Land

12

6.7(6)

2

3(4a)

15

7.5(6)

3

4.3(5)

Business

35

19.4(1)

6

9.1(3b)

27

13.6(3)

6

8.7(4)

Other/labour/bicycles

50

27.8

25

37.9

57

28.6

20

29

Total

180

100

66

100

199

100

69

100

The category “other” is a significant one, especially in Kitanyatta, and includes both labour and consumer durables such as bicycles. Unfortunately, labour was not separately coded on the questionnaire. Women were more likely than men to spend their income on food, and clothing was a significant expense for both men and women. The commonly held assumption that women are more likely to spend income that they control on household needs, especially food, tends to be supported by these data. Because women are traditionally responsible for providing food for the household, it is not surprising that food purchases are normally ranked higher for women than for men. However, men also spend a significant proportion of their income on food, and there are also indications that men’s expenditure allocations change as the household’s needs change. Both men and women increased their expenditure on food between 1996 and 1997 in both Gonve and Kitanyatta - with the absolute increase being greatest for men in Gonve - suggesting that the need for food was greater in 1997 and that men were willing to change their expenditure patterns to meet this need.