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close this bookBasic Husbandry Practices and Veterinary Care (IIRR, 1996, 60 p.)
View the documentForeword
View the documentBody parts of farm animals
View the documentNames of farm animals
View the documentFarm animals and their young
View the documentLivestock production
View the documentReproduction of poultry
View the documentBreeding
View the documentCare of calves and kids at birth
View the documentCare of piglets
View the documentFeeding orphaned animals
View the documentNutrition
View the documentDeworming
View the documentVaccination
View the documentCastration
View the documentHoof trimming
View the documentDehorning
View the documentClipping milk teeth of piglets
View the documentDisinfection of pen and equipment
View the documentWaste management and disposal
View the documentPesticides

Breeding

Cow/Caracow

A heifer should not be bred before she reaches 18 months in order for her to make the best cow. For first calving, she should not be bred to a bull of her own breed. This is to avoid difficult birthing.

Heat cycle

Most cows come into heat every 18 to 24 days all year round. Most cows are in heat for one whole day. The best time to breed is either near the end of the heat cycle.

A heifer or cow is in heat if she shows the following signs:

- String of clear mucus on her tail or hindquarters.
- Trying to ride other animals.
- Wandering around.
- Bawling or crying.

Pregnancy examination

At about five or six months after the cow has been last bred, make a fist and gently but firmly bump it into the cow's right side, in the flank. If the animal is pregnant, you will be able to feel a hard lump move. This is the calf. After six months, you can no longer feel the calf in this way because the calf is now located further down the abdominal cavity.

Drying up the cow/caracow

If you are milking the cow, you should stop milking her at six to eight weeks before she is due to give birth.

Taking care of the pregnant cow/caracow

Proper feeding is important for the pregnant cow. A good ration consists of legumes, silage and grain. A pregnant cow also needs salt, water and minerals. See section on Nutrition for details.

Doe

Heat detection

Does are in heat when they show the following signs:

- Bleating
- Running back and forth.
- Wagging their tails often.
- Riding other does or allowing themselves to be ridden.
- Drop in milk production.

The doe's heat lasts from one to three days.

Pregnancy

Be sure to exercise the does daily. Approximately 5 months (150 days) after breeding, the does will kid.

Pigs

Heat detection

Common signs of heat:

- The sow's vulva is swollen and reddish.

- Watery vaginal discharge.

- Sow is restless.

- During the early phase of heat, sow mounts other pigs. At the peak of heat, sow allows herself to be mounted by other pigs.

- Sow stands still when she feels pressure on her back.

Heat lasts about 24 hours. When not pregnant, sow exhibits heat every 21 days.

How to induce heat

Some sows do not come to heat at the expected time. Here are some methods used by farmers to induce heat:

- Gently stroke the sow's vulva with a freshly cut papaya stalk every morning for 3-5 days.

- Spray the sow's pen with boar's urine every morning for 3-5 days.

- Bring the sow to the boar or place the sow in a pen next to the boar.

Mating A sow should be mated twice, preferably late in the afternoon of the first day of heat and early in the morning of the second day.

Do not mate animals during the hot time of the day.

Assistance

Young boars often do not know the proper way to mount a sow. Assist the boar to avoid injury to boar and sow.

Pregnancy detection

If a sow does not show signs of heat three weeks after mating, then she is pregnant.

Care during pregnancy

- Separate pregnant sows from other animals.
- Protect pregnant sows from high temperatures.
- Avoid transporting pregnant sows.
- Provide ample fresh water.
- Provide space for sow to walk in.
- Provide a farrowing pen for each pregnant sow.
- Gradually reduce concentrate ration one week before farrowing and or weaning. (See Nutrition.)
- If sow is constipated, feed her with sweet potato leaves.

Dates of breeding and birthing

Cow

Date of breeding

Approximate date of birthing

Date of breeding

Approximate date of birthing

Jan

1

Oct

10

Jul

16

Apr

24


8


17


23

May

1


15


24


30


8


22


31

Aug

6


15


29

Nov

7


13


22

Feb

5


14


20


29


12


21


27

Jun

5


9


28

Sep

3


12


26

Dec

5


10


19

Mar

5


12


17


26


12


19


24

Jul

3


19


26

Oct

1


10


26

Jan

2


8


17

Apr

2


9


15


24


9


16


22


31


16


23


29

Aug

7


23


30

Nov

5


14


30

Feb

6


12


21

May

7


13


19


28


14


20


26

Sep

4


21


27

Dec

3


11


28

Mar

6


10


18

Jun

4


13


17


25


11


20


24

Oct

2


18


27


31

9



25

April

3





Jul

2


10






9


17





Source: J.W. Bailey. 1977. Veterinary Handbook for Cattlemen. New York: Springer.

Caracow

Date of breeding

Approximate date of birthing

Date of service

Approximate date of birthing

Jan

1

Nov

16

Jul

16

May

31


8


23


23

June

7


15


30


30


14


22

Dec

7

Aug

6


21


29


14


13


28

Feb

5


21


20

Jul

5


12


28


27


12


19

Jan

4

Sep

3


19


26


11


10


26

Mar

5


18


17

Aug

2


12


25


24


9


19

Feb

1

Oct

1


16


26


8


8


23

Apr

2


15


15


30


9


22


22

Sep

6


16

Mar

1


29


13


23


8

Nov

5


20


30


15


12


27

May

7


22


19

Oct

4

14


29


26


11



21

Apr

5

Dec

3


18

28


12


10


25


Jun

4


19


17

Nov

1


11


26


24


8


18

May

3


31


15


25


10





Jul

2


17






9


24





Source Adapted from Valente Villegas. 1965. Carabao Husbandry. Manila, Philippines: D. P. Perez.

Sow

Date of breeding

Approximate date of birthing

Date of service

Approximate date of birthing

Jan

1

Apr

26

Jul

16

Nov

8


8

May

3


23


15


15


10


30


22


22


17

Aug

6


29


29


24


13

Dec

6

Feb

5


31


20


13


12

Jun

7


27


20


19


14

Sep

3


27


26


21


10

Jan

3

Mar

5


28


17


10


12

Jul

5


24


17


19


12

Oct

1


24


26


19


8


31

Apr

2


26


15

Feb

7


9

Aug

2

22



14


16


9


29


21


23


16

Nov

5


28


30


23


12

Mar

7

May

7


30


19


14


14

Sep

6


26


21


21


13

Dec

3


28


28


20


10

Apr

4

Jun

4


27


17


11


11

Oct

4


24


18


18


11


31


25


25


18





Jul

2


25






9

Nov

1





Source: Adapted from Dirk van Loon. 1983. Small-scale Pig Raising. Charlotte, Vermont: Garden Way.

Goat

Date of breeding

Approximate date of birthing

Date of service

Approximate date of birthing

Jan

1

May

31

Jul

16

Dec

13


8

Jun

7


23


20


15


14


30


27


22


21

Aug

6

Jan

3


29


28


13


10

Feb

5

Jul

5


20


17


12


12


27


24


13


19

Sep

3


31


26


26


10

Feb

7

Mar

5

Aug

2


17


14


12


9


24


21


19


16

Oct

1


28


26


23


8

Mar

7

Apr

2


30


15


14


9

Sep

6


22


21


16


13


29


28


23


20

Nov

5

Apr

4


30


27


12


11

May

7

Oct

4


19


18


14


11


26


25


21


18

Dec

3

May

2


28


25


10


9

Jun

4

Nov

1


17


16


11


8


24


23


18


15


31


30


25


22





Jul

2


29






9

Dec

6