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close this bookViolence Against Women in the Caribbean: State and Non-State Responses (UNIFEM, 1998, 110 p.)
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View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentPreface
View the documentIntroduction
Open this folder and view contents1. Violence against Women in the Caribbean: An Overview
View the document2. Violence against Women as a Violation of Women’s Human Rights: International Developments
Open this folder and view contents3. Regional Responses to Violence against Women
Open this folder and view contents4. Conclusion and Recommendations
View the documentEndnotes
View the documentAcronyms
Open this folder and view contentsAPPENDICES
View the documentSelect Bibliography on Violence against Women in the Caribbean

Endnotes

1 Bunch, C; Fried, S: “Violence against Women”. Paper presented at Expert Group Meeting on Violence Against Women: Division for the Advancement of Women, United Nations, New York 1993

2 Report of Expert Group Meeting on Violence Against Women: Division for the Advancement of Women, United Nations, New York 1993

3 This definition of gender-based violence is provided by Rhonda Copelon in “Recognising the Egregious in the Everyday: Domestic Violence as Torture in Columbia,” Human Rights Law Review Vol. 25 No. 2 Spring 1994

4 See Mohammed, P: “The Creolisation of Indian Women in Trinidad” pp. 381-389 in Ryan, S. Ed. Trinidad and Tobago: The Independence Experience, 1962-1987, ISER, UWI, St. Augustine, 1988, and Reddock, Rhoda: Women, Labour and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago - A History. London: Zed Books 1994

5 Reddock, Rhoda: op cit

6 The Dominica National Council of Women: Report on the Status of Women in the Commonwealth of Dominica (undated)

7 Danns, G. and Shiw Parsad, B: Domestic Violence and Marital Relationships in the Caribbean. A Guyanese Case Study: p. 137 Women’s Studies Unit, University of Guyana 1989

8 Danns and Shiw Parsad, B: ibid; p. 136

9 Danns, G. and Shiw Parsad, B: Domestic Violence and Marital Relationships in the Caribbean. A Guyanese Case Study: Women’s Studies Unit, University of Guyana 1989

10 Danns and Parsad; ibid; p. 125

11 Danns and Parsad: ibid; p. 127

12 ProHealth: Violence Against Women in Suriname. A Study of Reported Cases. ProHealth, Paramaibo 1994

13 Pargass, G: “The Incidence of Sexual Offences in the Caribbean.” Paper presented at the CAFRA/UNECLAC Meeting on Women, Violence and the Law, Trinidad and Tobago January 1991

14 Danns, G. and Shiw Parsad, B: op cit

15 The Dominica National Council of Women: Report on the Status of Women in the Commonwealth of Dominica. (undated)

16 ProHealth: Violence Against Women in Suriname. A Study of Reported Cases. ProHealth, Paramaribo 1994

17 This survey undertaken by Penn Handworker has been reported in Violence Against Women: The Hidden Health Burden by Heise, Pitanguay and Germain. World Bank, Washington DC 1994

18 Creque, M.: A Study of the Incidence of Domestic Violence in Trinidad and Tobago. From 1991 to 1993 Shelter for Battered Women and Trinidad and Tobago Coalition Against Domestic Violence, Port of Spain 1995

19 Mondesire, A. and Dunn, L.: Towards Equity in Development: A Report on the Status of Women in Sixteen Commonwealth Caribbean Countries. Georgetown: CARICOM 1995

20 The St. Lucia National Report on the Status of Women. Prepared by Dr. L. Flethcher-Paul for the Ministry of Legal Affairs. May 1994

21 Unpublished statistics from the Trinidad and Tobago Rape Crisis Society

22 As reported in Mondesire and Dunn: op cit

23 Statistics taken from The Bahamas Preparatory Report on the Status of Women. p.46

24 As reported in Mondesire and Dunn: op cit

25 Creque, M: op cit

26 As reported in The Trinidad Express. April 10, 1991, page 3

27 Jamaica Annual Statistical Reports 1993, Kingston, Jamaica

28 Jordan, M.: Physical Violence against Women in Barbados 1977-1985 Bridgetown: Bureau of Women’s Affairs n.d.

29 Pargass, G: op cit

30 Pargass, G: op cit

31 Jordan, M. op cit

32 Beijing Declaration

33 Danns and Parsad: op cit

34 Cain, Maureen: “The Specificity of Violence against Women.” Paper presented at Faculty of Law/Women and Development Studies Seminar, Barbados 1990

35 There has been substantial feminist scholarship around this issue: See Rebecca Cook

36 International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development: Report of the NGO Expert Group Meeting on the Mandate of the Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, its Causes and Consequences. Montreal, November 1994

37 Women, Law and Development International: State Responses to Domestic Violence: Current Status and Needed Improvements, Washington DC 1996

38 The Laws of Belize: Criminal Code Chapter 84 s.45

39 Grenada Criminal Code s.198

40 St. Lucia Criminal Code Chapter 250, Book II, Pt. 1 Title 31 s.211, s.238

41 Menon, P.K.: “The Law of Rape and Criminal Law Administration with Special Reference to the Commonwealth Caribbean” in International and Comparative Law Quarterly. Vol. 32 p.832

42 Menon; op cit

43 Antigua, “Offences against the Person,” Chap. 300, s.49, in the Revised Laws of Antigua 1992

44 British Virgin Islands, “Offences Against the Person,” s.46, Revised Laws of British Virgin Islands 1991

45 Montserrat, “Offences against the Person,” Chapter 56, s.46, in the Revised Laws of Montserrat (1965)

46 Dominica, “Offences against the Person,” Chapter 10:31 s.49 in the Revised Laws of Dominica 1990

47 St. Christopher and Nevis, “Offences against the Person,” Chapter 56, s.46

48 Guyana, Criminal Law (Offences) Chapter 8:01, s.76

49 Jamaica, “Offences against the Person,” s.44

50 St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Criminal Code Chapter 124, s.123

51 BVI, op cit s.47. A person found guilty of indecent assault is liable upon conviction to imprisonment for two years with or without hard labour.

52 Dominica, op cit. s.50. A person found guilty of indecent assault is liable to imprisonment for a maximum of seven years

53 Guyana, op cit. s.45. A person found guilty of indecent assault is liable upon conviction to imprisonment for two years

54 Jamaica, op cit. s.53 A person found guilty of indecent assault is liable upon conviction to imprisonment for two years with or without hard labour

55 St. Christopher and Nevis, op cit s.47. A person found guilty of indecent assault is liable upon conviction to imprisonment for two years, with or without hard labour

56 St. Vincent and the Grenadines, op cit, s.127. A person found guilty of indecent assault on a female over the age of 15 is liable upon conviction to imprisonment for two years

57 Barbados Sexual Offences Act 1991; The Bahamas Sexual Offences and Domestic Violence Act 1991; The Trinidad and Tobago Sexual Offences Act 1986

58 Trinidad and Tobago Sexual Offences Act 1986

59 Barbados Sexual Offences Act s.28

60 Pargass, G. op cit “The Incidence of Sexual Offences in the Caribbean.” Paper presented at the CAFRA/UNECLAC and Meeting on Women, Violence and the Law, Trinidad and Tobago, January 1991

61 In Belize, Dominica and St. Lucia the punishment upon conviction for incest is a maximum of seven years imprisonment, while in Guyana, St. Vincent and the Grenadines this offence is punishable by ten and 14 years imprisonment respectively.

62 Trinidad and Tobago Domestic Violence Act 1991; Barbados Domestic Violence Act 1992; Belize Domestic Violence Act 1993; Jamaica Domestic Violence Act 1995; St. Lucia Domestic Violence Act 1995; St. Vincent and the Grenadines Domestic Violence Act 1994

63 Danns and Parsad: op cit

64 The Trinidad and Tobago Domestic Violence Act does not make provision for the giving of evidence on affidavit

65 Creque, M: op cit p. 9

65A Sheehy, E. Personal Autonomy and the Criminal Law: Emerging Issues for Women. A Background Paper. Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women. September 1987

66 ILO: Training Package on the Promotion of Equality and Treatment of Women Workers in Employment. Module 7: Combating Sexual Harassment at the Workplace

67 McKinnon, Catherine: Sexual Harrassment of Working Women: A Case of Sex Discrimination. Yale University Press 1979

68 As cited in International Labour Organisation Training Package on the Promotion of Equality and Treatment of Women Workers in Employment: Module 7 Combating Sexual Harassment at the Workplace. ILO, Geneva 1994

69 See Appendix on the CARICOM Draft Legislation on Sexual Harrassment in the Workplace

70 The information for this section was derived from the National Reports on the Status of Women prepared for the Fourth World Conference on Women and from papers delivered at the OAS/ UNIFEM Conference on Violence Against Women and Human Rights held in Trinidad and Tobago in November 1995

71 Tina Johnson reviews this debate on marital rape in the article “The Impact of Women’s Consciousness on the History of the Present in Social Justice” Vol. 17 No. 1 1990

72 Deosaran, R: as reported in Trinidad Guardian, March 10, 1991

73 It has been reported for Jamaica that 10 percent of women return to their spouses upon leaving the shelter. Morrisson, I. op cit;

73A Heise, Loraine and Chapman, Jane Robert: “Reflections on a Movement: The US Battle Against Women Abuse.” in Freedom From Violence: Women’s Strategies From Around the World. Margaret Schuler (ed). Unifem, 1992.

74 Cain, M.: “The Specificity of Violence against Women.” Paper presented at UWI Faculty of Law/Women and Development Studies Seminar on Gender and the Rule of Law in the Commonwealth Caribbean. December 3-6, 1990, Barbados

75 Schuler, M: “Violence against Women: An International Perspective” in Freedom from Violence: Women’s Strategies from around the World. UNIFEM 1992 New York

76 Felix, D: “Applications Under the Domestic Violence Act and Other Family Matters in the Magistrates Court - An Overview.” Paper presented at the Law Association of Trinidad and Tobego Seminar on Family Law, 14 March 1992

77 Haniff, N: Male Violence against Men and Women in the Caribbean: The Case of Jamaica. WAND Occasional Papers

78 See Appendix 2

79 These principles are taken, in part, from “The National Strategy on Violence against Women,” National Committee on Violence against Women. Commonwealth of Australia. 1992

80 UNECCLAC - Women in Development: Guidelines for Research on Violence Against Women, St. Vincent and Grenadines. Unpublished, 1989