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close this bookTraditional Cheesemaking (SKAT, 1989, 74 p.)
close this folderAppendices
View the document1. Cheese formulae
View the document2. Types of dairy cultures

2. Types of dairy cultures


Optimum incubation temperature ( C)

Used for




Emmental, Gruy, Italian hard cheese

Mixed cultures of Lactobacillus helveticus and Streptococcus thermophilus

Lactic cultures with aromatizers


Butter, acidified milk products, cheese

Mixed cultures containing betacoccus and

streptococcus acidifers and aromatizers

Lactic cultures


Soft cheese and cheese

Mixed cultures containing only streptococcus

without aromatizers

with firm structure

acidifiers (lactis and cremoris)

Leuconostoc citrovorum Leuconostoc dextranicum


Buttermilk, sour cream, cottage cheese, ripened cream butter

Produce only flavour; have to be used together with lactic ferments (Streptococcus lactis and/ or Streptococcus cremonis)

Penicillium camemberti


Camembert cheese

Surface growth with a white mat surface

Penicillium candidum

producing a nutty flavour and a creamy texture; it is added directly to the milk

Penicillium roqueforti


Blue cheese (Gorgonzola, Roquefort, etc.)

The air induces the mould spores to grow vegetatively with a resulting spread of their greenish-bblue mycela, effecting the flavour and texture of the cheese; it is added directly to the milk

Propionibacterium shermanii


Cheese with eye formation

Grows with difficulty in ordinary milk; added just before the rennet for flavour and eye formation in hard cheese, in addition to Emmental-mix

Streptococcus diacetylactis


Buttermilk, sour cream, cottage cheese, ripened cream butter

Produces acid and flavour

Streptococcus durans


Soft Italian cheese,

A species of bacteria resistant to salt and

Streptococcus faecalis

Cheddar and some Swiss cheese

heat which imparts a characteristic flavour



Yoghurt, hard cheese

Mixed cultures of Lactobacilus bulgaricus and Streptococccus thermophilus

These starters can be ordered from different laboratories in lyophilized form in small bags or bottles and can be conserved in the refrigerator for about three months. They cost approximately US$5 each.