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close this bookIndigenous Technology Knowledge for Watershed Management in upper North-West Himalayas of India (PWMTA, 1998)
close this folderChapter 9 - Tools and implements
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentTillage implements
View the documentInterculture operation tools
View the documentHarvesting tools:
View the documentPostharvest tools and implements
View the documentMiscellaneous tools

Miscellaneous tools

Hammer, jumper, wedge and shovel and hand saw are also used from time to time in the various farm operations.

Despite of their widespread use, even today, these indigenous implement/tools in general are not agronomically sound and as a result lower the efficiency and increase tiredness of the operator. There is an urgent need to improve upon the traditional implements so as to redress this serious limitation. The standardization of their design in accordance with the requirements of hill farming is long overdue.

Table 1: List of tools/implements in various regions of HP

Type of tools/implements

English name

Local name in regions



Lahaul & Spiti

Chamba

Sirmour

Kinnaur

Bilaspur

I. Tillage and bed/land preparation tools

1. Wooden Plough

Nagal

Hal

Hal

Thong
(Aawi)

Hal


2. Yoke or Punjali

Joom

-

Joda


Jungda


3. Hammer wooden (Mallot)

Thowa

dah

ud

Ghoon

Padawata


4. Leveller

-

mach

Sohaga

Jorah

Maida


5. Pick axe

Gainti

Gainti

Gainti

bilcha

Gainti

II. Interculture operation tools

1. Spade

Chagwal

Phawara

Phorwa

-

Jhhamb


2. Harrow

-

Dandal

-

Gyama

Dandali


3. Khilna

-

-

-

Chikri

Kilni


4. Hoe (Kudal)

Okthan

Kudali

Kasi

Khassi

Kudali


5. Hand hoe

-

Khurpi

Khurpi

Khot

Khurpa


6. Iron hook provided with wooden handle

Surmn

-

-

-

-

III. Harvesting

1. Scythe

Dranti

Darati

Daranti

Sora
(Dachi)

Dorati


2. Sharp blade fitted to wooden handle

Jathugza

Gandasa

-

-

Rutasa


3. Big sickle

Drant

Darat

Darant

Naryal
(Daach)

Draft


4. Small axe makudi

Karji

Jhontu

Teri

-

Kulhadu


5. Plough

Nagal

Hal

Hal

Jhong

Hal

IV. Phostharvest
Bambo pin

1. Wooden Pin/

-

-

-

-

Sua


2. Threshing pole

-

-

-

Berka

Deeng


3. Basket

Kilta

Kilta

Kilta

Kilta
(Changer)

Tokri


4. Suhaga (Leveller)


Mach

Moi

Jorah

Maida


5. Winnower

Sheen

Chhaj

Zongfa

-

Chhaj


6. Large sieve

-

-

-

Yara

Kera


7. Threshing floor

-

-

-

Kholang

-


8. Sack (Bag)

-

-

-

Phat

Bori


9. Hand mill

Ranthak
(Chackki)

-

-

-

Chakki

V. Additional

1. Chisel

Chutsa

Nihani

-

Zabbal

Chhini


2. Jumper

Jhabbal

-

-

-

Chabbal


3. Saw

-

Karolari

Aari

-

Aari


4. Iron Hammer

-

-

-

-

Hathodi