|Making of Floors - Course: Timberwork techniques. Trainees' handbook of lessons (Institut für Berufliche Entwicklung, 11 p.)|
After the preparations are completed and material, tools, measuring and testing means are ready, the following operations have to be started:
- Measuring of the space across the beams.
The determined length, less 20 - 30 mm, if the boards are not butt-joined, is marked on the boards.
A square is applied to the length marking, the marking is scribed reactangularly and the board is sawn off.
Between surfaced boards and abutting fixed parts of a building such as walls or pillars a strip of 10 -15 mm in width has to be left open, which, after the boards are laid, is covered with skirting boards.
Due to the skirting board the wood can better contract and expand. If the boarding absorbs moisture and rises it is not squeezed by the beams.
If matched boards are laid, the tongue is removed from the first board or - with covered nailing - the groove or - in case of rebated boards - the rabbet.
It can be sawn off, chopped off or jacked down. After this, the first board is laid 10-15 mm off the wall and nailed.
- In front of the first fixed board, another five to six boards are laid loosely and one by one driven together by slight hammer blows. In doing so, a piece of a plank or, which is even better, a piece of a board is placed between the hammer and the respective board to prevent it from being damaged.
- Next to these deals, deal cramps are fixed on the beams which press the deals closely together. If no such cramps are available, steel cramps - according to the length of the deals - are driven into the beams. A piece of a plank and two wooden wedges are put between the deals and each cramp. Now the wedges are equally fastened with the hammer and thus the deals pressed together closely.
With a pencil a thin nailing line is scribed, and the deals are nailed along this line.
With covered nailing, each deal must be driven to the neighbouring one and be nailed immediately. If the deals are butt-joined, the joint has to be staggered at an interval of 1000 mm, approximately. This helps to distribute loads and vibrations over several beams.
When laying planed boards, the beams have to be covered with planks, so that safe working is possible.
- Putting the last deals in.
With open nailing two to three deals are laid starting from the wall and nailed.
Between these deals and those already laid before, the exact width of two or better four deals must remain free.
In this interspace the deals to be completed are put in an inclined position from above, so that they show upwards at an obtuse angle. Then, a plank is placed across these deals and one steps on the plank forcing the deals into the interspace by ones weight. With covered nailing, wooden wedges are driven between the last board and the wall until they are close together.
- Levelling of the surface
After all nails are driven in and the deals are cleaned, wood which may be projecting at butt-joints or other places is smoothed with a plane. This way an even, plane surface is reached.
How are deals pressed tightly together?