|Manufacture of Ceilings - Course: Timberwork techniques. Trainees' handbook of lessons (Institut für Berufliche Entwicklung, 22 p.)|
Ceilings serve architectonic, physical and statical purposes.
Table 1: Purpose of ceilings
In addition to statical functions, such as stiffening of the building or room and taking up of loads, they should also meet fire-resisting, sound-insulating and heat-insulating requirements. They must withstand the air humidity and, depending on the use of the building, be protected against penetration of moisture.
Basically the construction of a ceiling features three components:
- bare ceiling (supporting and stiffening structure of the ceiling)
- top ceiling (floor construction on the bare ceiling)
- subceiling (covering the bottom side of the bare ceiling).
Basic construction of a ceiling
1 bare ceiling (supporting structure), 2 top ceiling, 3 subceiling, 4 additional rafters or thatched ceiling, 5 plaster base (wood-wool boards or woven reed)
The supporting structure of a ceiling may be designed as solid ceiling or as beam (joist) ceiling, depending on the load. The subceiling may also be fixed to the bare ceiling as false ceiling.
Construction of a false ceiling
1 bare ceiling, 2 top ceiling, 3 false ceiling (stucco ceiling), 4 non-corrosive round steel bars as suspension bars, 5 non-corrosive reinforcing steel bars