Cover Image
close this bookBoiling Point No. 20 - December 1989 (ITDG - ITDG, 1989, 40 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentNew Stoves For Old
View the documentKerosene and Gas Stoves in Nagercoil, South India
View the documentKerosene Wick Stoves
View the documentAn Investigation on the Colombian Kerosene Stove
View the documentTrials to Use Mineral Coal from Kiwira Coal Mines in the DUMA Wood Stoves
View the documentEnergy & The Environment in the Third World
View the documentUse Of Non Biomass Stoves In Sri Lanka
View the document''Simply Living''
View the documentLow-Wattage Cookers in Nepal
View the documentBiochar Briquetting & Burning
View the documentSTOVE PROFILE
View the document''Gourd Roots Make Good Fuel''
View the documentThe South Indian Clay Crusher
View the documentNEWS


ITDG Urban Stoves Seminar

ITDG's urban stoves seminar for 1989 was held in Sri Lanka, 4th - 16th September in cooperation with the CEB. The objective was to establish guidelines for the production and marketing of urban stoves. These guidelines are being published as a 21 page booklet and will be distributed free to readers of Boiling Point and relevant agencies in January 1990.

We gratefully acknowledge the Overseas Development Administration (UK) and Ministry of Power and Energy (Sri Lanka) for funding this seminar. Nine participants were carefully identified from Guatemala, Vietnam, Kenya, Tanzania, Somalia, Zimbabwe, Sudan and Mali to attend the two week seminar.

The guidelines were based on the following aspects of stove programmes:

· pre-project research and appraisal
· project planning implementation of stove production, quality control and marketing
· project monitoring and evaluation.

The guidelines were developed from 3 perspectives, of the programme managers, stove technicians and beneficiaries (users, producers and distributors).

These guidelines are very general and cannot be a common recipe for the many different contexts of urban stove programmes and they need to be constantly reappraised.

However, we believe the guidelines will provide valuable assistance in setting up urban stove projects.

IT Power Receives Queen's Award

IT's sister organisation, IT Power, has been awarded the Queen's Award for Industry through Export Achievement for their pioneering work in renewable energy and rural development.

IT Power was founded in 1981, using money from l l DG, and has since embarked on 300 projects in over 50 countries. Its speciality is advising on the choice and use of environmentally friendly, renewable energy systems for clients ranging from the World Bank to commercial firms.

Projects vary from conserving wood fuel in Ethiopia to introducing solar refrigerators for vaccine-storage in remote health clinics in Zaire. The company is currently exploring the potential of solar cells to produce electricity in remote areas, and, in collaboration with the People's Republic of Mongolia, on the potential for wind, solar and biogas to improve the quality of life for the country's nomadic population.


The following report was received from Kahunde Samuel "The Tree and Energy Conservation Programme" (TRENCOP) co-ordinator. It is reproduced here because we believe it to be typical of many small NGO's in Africa and Asia who write to us for free copies of BP. Our new co-operation from GTZ/GATE will help us continue meeting these requests (see next issue for details).

The Tree and Energy Conservation Programme (TRENCOP).

Location: Masindi, Western Uganda (offices at Masindi N.T.C.)

Type of Organisation: TRENCOP is a grass root non-governmental and non-profit, environmental conservation organisation.


It was founded on 2nd April 1988, to react to the crucial environmental problem of mid-western region of Uganda. The problem is inadequate trees for fuel, construction, windbreak, shade and fruits. Because of this problem, many people walk long distances looking for firewood, charcoal is very expensive, it is also expensive to erect a temporary house and many houses are always blown down. On 2nd April a meeting was convened by Mr. Kahunde Samuel, who addressed the problem to the local people. It was resolved to establish an organization, (TRENCOP), to solve the problem.

Goals and Objectives

(a) To educate the people in environmental aspects, especially giving them practical skills and knowledge of rearing trees.
(b) To establish nurseries and plant various tree species for fuel, building, shade, wind breaks and fruit.
(c)To design/construct fuel-saving cookstoves and promote renewable energy sources.


Regional (within a country). It is to cover Masindi and Hoima districts.
Focus Group: Students of Secondary Schools, Teachers' Colleges and pupils of Primary Schools (also the women).

Plan of Action

· Opening up conservation associations in schools and colleges.
· Carrying out environmental education programme.
· Establishment of tree nurseries.
· Planting trees for fuel, building, fruit windbreaks and shade. Designing and constructing fuel-saving cookstoves.
· Making conservation tours.
· Organisation and observation of special events, e.g. world environment day. Editing a newsletter.
· Making environmental education material.

Present Phase

· The plan of action has been tackled and the following have been done.
· Associations have been opened in schools and colleges.
· Environmental education has been embarked on.
· A few nurseries have been established and trees planted.
· Some cookstoves which are fuel-saving have been designed and constructed.


The objectives will be achieved through: lectures, seminars and workshops, experiments and demonstrations, fieldwork and literature. These are carried out in various ways, places and occasions. They include: classrooms, radio programmer, special events, competitions and exhibitions.


It will be evaluated during its progress both internally and externally. Evaluation will be based on the proposed plan of action.


The programme will continue indefinitely. However, within eight years 75% of the proposed activities and geographical coverage should be covered.


a) Students/pupil, acquire skills and knowledge for tree rearing and cookstoves construction.
b) Educational institutions acquire tree plantations for fuel, construction, shade, windbreaks and fruit.
c) The local community will adopt the newly designed fuel-saving cookstoves which are advantageous over the traditional ones.
d) The Ugandan ministries (Environment, Energy, Women and Technology), will have some of their programmes supplemented by TRENCOP.
e) Other organizations with similar programmes or projects will benefit through cooperation and exchange of information.

Future Plans

a) TRENCOP will focus on non-student groups in Officials rural areas.
b) The programme will be opened to other geographical areas.
c) More projects will be opened.

Initial Income Budget

· Membership fees 8%
· Special contributions 12%
· Fundraising (e.g. concerts, filmshows, farming) 15%
· International donor agencies 65%


A newsletter, "TRENCOP NEWS" will soon be published bi-monthly.


The organization has three projects or departments each under a project manager, assisted by heads of sections and other technical personnel. The projects include:

· Environmental education project.
· Energy development project.
· The tree planting project.


The supreme authority (policy-maker) is the Board of Directors. The executive staff include: the Executive Director, Deputy Executive Director, Co-ordinator, Programme Officers, an Information Officer and an Accountant.

Contact Person

Mr. Kahunde Samuel,
P.O. Box 310,


Executive Director: Mr. Kahunde Samuel

Deputy Executive Director: Mr. Mugisa Emmanuel

Coordinator: Ms. Bigabwa Basemera

Accountant: Ms. Iherre Sayuni

Programme Officer: Ms. Kiraahwa Monica

Programme Officer: Ms. Isingoma Prescovia

Programme Officer: Ms. Milly Ndamurani


We are reproducing the following article on 'stove' education from the Bellerive Foundation Newsletter - October 1989 no. 7, P O Box 6, CH-1211 Geneva 3, Switzerland.

Cooking to Conserve

by EmilyWillingham

Two groups of children are tending wood fires under cooking pots, each of which rests on three stones. One of the fires is burning hot and clean and the water in the pot is already starting to form bubbles. The other fire is off to a slow start, dark smoke is billowing up into the faces of the children and the water in the pot is still cool. The group with the effective fire is using dry wood whereas the other group is using green, wet wood. All of the children can see very quickly that dry wood cooks cleaner and faster.

Boy and Girl Scouts, you may ask? No, this is a Kenyan Home Science class in a primary school. The curriculum their teacher is using is called Cooking to Conserve, an energy conservation series prepared by the Bellerive Foundation with support from World Wide Fund for Nature International.

Eight years of designing, testing and disseminating various stove designs has proved to Bellerive Foundation staff that a successful programme centred around fuel efficient cookstoves depends as much on effective education as it does on sound technology. The two must go hand in hand for energy conservation and improved kitchen conditions to follow.

For over a year now, work has been in progress to develop the seven-lesson series. Each lesson includes a student booklet and an accompanying teacher's guide. The eight-page student booklets are illustrated like comic books. They feature Sylvus, a wise man who lives inside a tree and the brothers, Mob and Toh, who in the course of seven story-poems discover the secrets of the forest and of healthier, more efficient cooking.

Sylvus has lived for centuries in his tree. He embodies the wisdom of the ages and values the old traditions. At the same time, he has seen many changes and understands the importance of adapting habits to modern conditions in order to improve health conditions and to conserve the forest. Sylvus realises that it is important for Mob and Toh to discover most secrets for themselves. Accordingly, when he is asked, the sage helps them to clarify each new principle which they then introduce to their chief and fellow villagers. The illustrations, conceived and drawn by Ursula Shimechero of Kenya and Dorothy Migadde of Uganda, bring alive the lesson material.

Too often, conservation development programmes tell recipients what to do and not to do. The focus in these lessons is to show the children options for conserving fuel. Rather than teaching through 'chalk and talk', the teacher builds each lesson around a central activity which demonstrates compelling an energy-saving technique.

The techniques presented are basic. Examples of these are using firewood which is properly cut and dried, soaking maize and beans overnight, and covering the cooking pot with a lid. Adopting such measures can reduce significantly the amount of firewood required to cook a meal, with or without an improved cookstove. This is important because in the rural areas the three-stone fire still is the most common means of cooking and is likely to remain so.

The decision to present these energy-saving measures through Home Science classes in primary schools recognised the need for addressing the domestic fuelwood shortage in the long term. Introducing these ideas to the very young, who are likely to inherit an even more acute scarcity than is felt today, encourages young people to establish good habits when it comes to kitchen energy management. Since children help in the kitchen from a very early age, it is hoped that they will take home ideas which will be useful in their own households.

Drafts of the first two lessons were presented in workshops to teachers who tried the materials with their students and evaluated them in follow-up workshops with Bellerive Foundation staff. In the coming school year, following further teacher workshops, the entire series of lessons will be piloted in three districts in Kenya where the Bellerive Foundation maintains support staff for its institutional and domestic stove programmer.

Response so far from school inspectors, headmasters, teachers, and students has been enthusiastic. Their suggestions have proved helpful in revising the materials, which are targeted for completion later this autumn.

Stove programmes sometimes have been accused of focusing too much on the issue of firewood conservation from the global perspective and not enough on the woman's burden of finding firewood and of protecting her and her children's health at home in the kitchen. By introducing Cooking to Conserve, the Bellerive Foundation hopes to complement its programme to produce and disseminate improved cooking stoves. Through it, the Foundation addresses the issues of conservation and health at the level of each individual young person.

In time, the Bellerive Foundation hopes to introduce Cooking to Conserve in other African countries, adapting the format to appeal to local tastes, by working with local educators and artists. It is a promising new direction for the Foundation. After all, investing time and energy in an education programme for children today, expresses confidence in the promise of tomorrow.


AT Source

We welcome the new and more attractive version of AT Source, the quarterly journal of the Dutch appropriate technology promotion organisation.

The March 1989 edition has the theme of firewood and contains articles on basic aspects of wood fuel, stove designs, social forestry and the effects of deforestation on women and family diets.

AT Source is produced in English and French and is obtainable from:

Editors, AT Source, P O Box 41, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands


The April 1989 edition of the quarterly journal of US Volunteers in Technical Assistance contains an

interesting article by Margaret Crouch on the problems of Mali sheet metal workers in producing and marketing the increased quantities of improved stoves needed. It discussed the capacity of the existing force of skilled artisans to produce such large numbers of stoves and the alternative of establishing small factories to make them by production line methods with some simple machinery.

Copies of VITA News are obtainable from: VITA Publications P O Box 12028 Arlington Virginia 22209 USA

Boiling Point is the journal of the Intermediate Technology, Development Group's Fuel for Food Programme and is now printed on recycled paper. Contributions are welcome in the form of aticles of not more than 1,000 words plus line drawings, photographs, simple graphs etc. where appropriate. All correspondence should be addressed to Boiling Point, ITDG, Fuel for Food Programme, Myson House, Railway Terrace, Rugby, CV21 3HT, UK

Opinion expressed in contributory articles are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the ITDC Fuel for Food Programme.

(Readers wishing to enter into correspondence may obtain full postal addresses from the address given above).

Editorial and Production Team

Tammy Flavell - Production Manager
Ian Grant - Editor
Pete Young
Kathryn Clarke
Simon Burne


R Banda, M S Beltran, K Bennett.
H Johannes, T Jones
A Pearce, K Samuel
H Schneiders, E B Shultz
N Verhoeven, M Waltham
E Willingham, P Young

Cartoons by Peter Bradbrook

Contributions to Boiling Point

Contributions are invited for the next three issues of Boiling Point the main themes of which will be:

No 21 - Stoves, Energy, Environment
No 22 - Stoves Other Uses
No 23 - Measures of Success

Articles for these issues should reach this office by the end of February for issue No 21, the end of June for issue No 22 and by the end of October for issue No 23.


Thank you to those who have sent ITDG their subscriptions or letters requesting to continue receiving Boiling Point for the coming year.

Please find enclosed a subscription form for Boiling Point editions 21-23. Please complete this form and return it to the address shown with your payment of £9.00, (£ sterling, US$, Euro cheque, l.M.O.,) or letter requesting continuation of Boiling Point. (Even if you are unable to pay, please return this form with your details so we can then enter this information on our computer records).

Technical Enquiries to ITDG

One of the most valuable services provided by ITDG is in answering technical enquiries.

The stove team and its associates arc at your service in this way and havenswered many enquiries over the last 6 years. They are ready to tackle questions on subjects such as stove promotion and dissemination: marketing, and economics; production; project strategy, and planning as well as technical problems of design and testing etc.

Boiling Point now has a column for stove enquiries we have received and for which we invite readers suggestions.


Intermediate Technology Development Croup (ITDG) is a British charity dedicated to increasing generating capabilities of poor people in rural areas of the developing world. ITDG gives advice in the choice of appropriate technologies and provides assistance to local development projects aimed at improving productivity of communities and small enterprises. Roiling Point is mainly funded by the UK Overseas Development Administration.