Cover Image
close this bookBoiling Point No. 27 - April 1992 (ITDG - ITDG, 1992, 40 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentWomen, Woodfuel, Work & Welfare
View the documentFuel Shortages & Women's Health
View the documentImproved Stoves, Time, Fuel
View the documentLess Fuel for Food
View the documentThe Value of Women's Time
View the documentWomen in Stoves Programmes
View the documentThe Effect of Fuel Efficient Stoves
View the documentWe Have Never Felt It So Enjoyable To Cook
View the documentStoves, Forests and Women
View the documentReflecting on Women, Children & Stoves
View the documentLearning as We Teach: A Dialogue with Cooks
View the documentEnergy Transitions in Africa
View the documentGTZ news
View the documentFuel Collection and Nutrition in Nepal
View the documentAir Transfer Heat Storage Cooker
View the documentWood Energy Use in Small Enterprises
View the documentNEWS
View the documentAbout ITDG & SHE
View the documentPUBLICATIONS


HYDRONET is an international publication promoting communication between all those dealing with minihydro power. It provides a platform for an interchange of experiences, activities, problems and solutions. HYDRONET is the result of networking within the Mini Hydro Power Group.

HYDRONET is a tool for international coordination - it is much more than a newsletter.

HYDRONET is sponsored and edited by the members of the Mini Hydro Power Group. It has 16 pages and is published three times a year, in English and Spanish, by MHPG. In addition to feature articles, HYDRONET offers a questions and answer service. If information is not available directly, outside experts are sought.

HIDRORED, the Spanish edition of the newsletter, is being produced in Lima, Peru.

For subscriptions and information please contact:
HYDRONET editorial office:
R Metzler,
Stephen Blautymann Str. 11 D-7743 Furtwangen The Mini
GERMANY Hydro Power
Fax: 49 7723 5373 Group
Tel: 49 77234459

The Mini Hydro Power Group, MHPG, existed long before it had a name: it is an association of various institutions already sharing experiences fruitfully in the field of micro and mini hydro projects in developing countries. (Micro - less than 100 KW, Mini - 100-1,000 KW).

The MHPG consists of six members: projekt-consult Beratund in Entwicklungslandern GmbH, Germany


Fordergesellschaft fur angepasste Techniken in der Dritten Welt, Germany

Intermediate Technology Development Group, UK

Projekt-Planung-Lauterjung, Germany

Swiss Centre for Appropriate Technology, Switzerland

Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit, Germany

The Intermediate Technology Development Group's micro-hydro power programme has been operating since 1979 in many countries. In this time more than 200 feasibility studies have been completed and over 40 schemes designed and commissioned by IT staff. Our work is collaborative and we have worked with many governments, NGOs, research institutions, communities and small manufacturers worldwide. We have offices in Peru, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Zimbabwe.

IT specialises in:

· feasibility studies including complex socio-economic analyses.

· project design and management for small and major projects.

· technological innovation and work with R&D institutions, for instance pumps-as-turbines, electric storage cookers, direct drive refrigeration and dehydration plants.

· technology transfer particularly in local manufacture of turbines, motors-as-generators, electronic load control units.

· training courses in hydro design, manufacture and implementation, electronic control etc. IT also specialises in training local trainers.


"Green Valley", newsletter of FECT- Pakistan-German, Fuel Efficient Cooking Technologies Project.

We welcome the first English language stove newsletter from Pakistan. It has 16 pages and is produced quarterly by FECT - P O Box 896, University Town, Peshawar, Pakistan, editors T R Faqir and T Neumaier. It contains several interesting articles about stove work in Pakistan as well as a humorous article about stove programme staff recruitment which will remind many projects such as ours at ITDG of similar experiences. The first article by T A & A Alismalli sets out briefly but clearly why several stove designs and project strategies have failed in Pakistan as elsewhere. It also describes the stoves and marketing methods developed in cooperation with Thomas Neumaier of GTZ which they believe are now succeeding. We wish success to FECT and Sabz Wadi.


Private Enterprise in the Public Interest

Catalyst is the new name of the Technical Bulletin of ATI - Appropriate Technology International, 1331 H Street, NW Washington DC 20005, USA.

ATI is a private, non-profit, development assistance organisation with projects in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Its principal operations funder is USAID. The following extract from the November 1991 edition of Catalyst (another example of stove technology transfer).

Diambar Stoves in Senegal

Nearly two-thirds of the energy consumed in Senegal comes from wood and wood byproducts. Of 3.4 million cubic metres of wood cut to satisfy domestic firewood needs, 40% is processed into charcoal. Approximately 220,000 tons of charcoal are consumed annually in Senegal. In 1986, the capital city of Dakar consumed between 100,000 and 150,000 tons of the national total.

The Diambar charcoal stove derives from the Jiko stove developed in Kenya by CARE and other NGOs. It has a metal casing fitted with a one-piece ceramic liner and grate. The liner rests in the upper half of the casing and is held in place by an insulating layer of cement mixed with vermiculite. At first, a straight-sided casing similar to the Kenyan traditional all-metal stove was used. Later, it was found that changing the shape to a bell-bottom reduced the weight of the stove and the susceptibility of the liner to cracking. The metal casing serves a variety of purposes, including protecting the liner and supporting cooking pots. The liner reduces heat loss from radiation. The grate allows air to circulate from the air vent in the lower half of the stove to the charcoal deposited on top and channels heat directly to the pot.

Testing of the Diambar stove in 115 Senegalese households revealed acceptance on three significant variables: fuel savings, cooking time and appearance. According to the 1991 project survey, the average charcoal saving relative to the traditional stove is 51%.

The potential market for the Diambar stove consists of the approximately 220,000 urban and pert-urban households in Senegal that already use charcoal for cooking. By the end of the project it is expected that at least 10,000 Diambars will be manufactured and sold.

The stove is expected to sell for approximately US$ 10 in Senegal. (The sales price in Nairobi ranges from $3.60 to $4.75 and a replacement liner sells for $1.70). The Diambar will initially be promoted by the manufacturers, and later through a publicity campaign.

Your Contribution Wanted! on "Biomass Fuel Combustion & Stoves" for BP28 - August 28, 1992

Articles, reports and news items are invited for our next edition which will have the above theme. Suggested subjects for articles are:

· the chemical & physical processes of combustion of wood, dung, other residues and of charcoal (not too technical)

· combustion emmisions and their measurements and effects on local and global environments

· effects on health of women and children of emmisions from different fuels

· stove design guidelines for better fuel efficiency, faster cooking and less smoke

· the design, construction and use of chimnies and hoods and their good and bad effects on combustion

· The economic and environmental justifications for the promotion of improved charcoal stoves.

Articles should not be more than 2,000 words and drawings, diagrams, graphs or other illustration are regarded by the editors as essential for BP articles. Contributions will be welcomed from stove users, practical stove builders and designers, engineers and even university professors.

Last copy date is 22nd June 1992. Non-theme articles are also wanted. The joint theme editor for this edition is Peter Young, Senior Technical Manager of the SHE programme of ITDG.

Two of Boiling Point's longer servants are moving on from ITDG. In March, Simon Burne, formerly manager of the Fuel for Food Programme and later Agro-Processing Sector Manager, left to become the UK Director of the environmental agency PANOS. Kate Clarke, Simon's succesor in both positions, will be leaving in June to join Traidcraft Exchange as Programme Director. BP wishes them well in their new positions and thanks them whole-heartedly for their hard work on behalf of the journal. We expect to stay in touch with Simon and Kate and look forward to their next articles for Boiling Point.

Households Conserve Charcoal & Save Time with Ceramic Lined Stoves

Stove Activities in Uganda by Tom Otiti ,from FAO "Stove News" Sept/Oct '91

Early efforts to introduce energy-efficient stoves were initiated in Uganda more than five years ago by NGOs working in close collaboration with the Kenya Energy and Environment Organizations (KENGO). Although numerous training sessions on stove production were organised, the number of improved stoves disseminated in the country is still not significant.

On average only 20% of the trained artisans continue to manufacture improved stoves. Most of the artisans who started improved stove production in Uganda did so in order to generate income. They are either sole proprietors or private individuals and operate with minimal financial assistance or technical support from the Government.

Although the Ministry of Energy (created in 1986, now merged with the Ministry of Environment Protection) provides policy and moral support to improved cookstoves activities, it has not channelled substantial technical assistance to stove manufacturers.

The recently-completed, World Bank financed, Household Energy Planning Programme (HEPP), has not resulted in the initiation of stove field activities. HEPP's main output is a set of impressive documents outlining the major problem areas of the country's household energy sub-sector. The documents will, however, be of limited use unless follow-up activities are implemented.

The lacklustre performance of the HEPP contrasts sharply with another world Bank-financed initiative in Tanzania which has in less than 3 years managed to disseminate over 20,000 improved stoves and has been instrumental in the establishment of 3 major private sector stove enterprises. The success of the Tanzania project was largely due to its avoiding lengthy surveys and concentrating its efforts on providing limited material and technical resources to a number of selected micro-enterprises which could ensure sustainable manufacture and marketing of improved cookstoves.

Although biomass energy accounts for most of Uganda's household energy supply, the Ministry of Energy has continued to give priority to fossil fuels such as petroleum. This is clearly demonstrated in the estimates for the 1990/91 budget whereby the Petroleum Department was allocated more than 80% of the Ministry's budget. Unfortunately, the performance of NGOs involved in stove activities has not been encouraging either.

The vital function of national co-ordination and being a catalyst for stove activities, can best be undertaken by the Government in conjunction with umbrella NGOs such as Uganda National Energy Development Organization (UNEDO). It is, therefore, important that institutional, training and financial support is provided to Government ministries and NGOs interested in improved cookstove activities. In addition, priority attention should be given to supporting and encouraging enterprise development in the stove sub-sector. This would strengthen local energy institutions, encourage collaboration and exchange of information and culminate in the successful large-scale manufacture and dissemination of improved cookstoves in Uganda.

More information on Uganda's stove activities can be obtained from:

Mr Tom Otiti
Physics Department
Makerere University
P O Box 7062, Kampala


(Tel: 041234732/3; Fax: 041245580)

Kabale Stove - Traditional Woodstove from Uganda

Usika Ceramic Stave - THe Ugandan Version of the Kenyan Ceramic Jiko

Technical Enquiries to ITDG

One of the most valuable services provided by ITDG is in answering technical enquiries. The Technical Enquiry Unit acts as a focus for the Group's information and advisory service and can respond on a wide variety of topics. The TEU has extensive contacts within the UK and Europe. The stove team and its associates are at your service in this way.

Please send all enquiries to:

The Manager
Technical Enquiry Office
ITDC, Myson House
Railway Terrace, RUGBY, CV21 3HT, UK
Telephone: 0788 560631
Telex: 317466 ITDC G
Fax: 0788 540270

Contributions to Boiling Point

Contributions are invited for the next three issues of Boiling Point, the main themes of which will be:

No: 28 - Biomass Combustion, Chimneys & Hoods No: 29 - Stoves in Southern Africa

Articles for issues 28 and 29 should reach this office by the end of June for issue No. 2X and end of October for issue No. 29.

ISSN: 0263-3 167

Editorial & Production Team

Tammy Flavell - Production Manager

Ian Grant - Editor

Emma Crewe - Co-Editor

Peter Young - Senior Technical Manager

Peter Watts - Programme Manager

Kathryn Clarke - Sector Manager

Agnes Klingshirn - GTZ Representative

Elke Metzen - GTZ Consultant

Specialist Advisors:

Simon Burne - Economist

Caroline Ashley - Social Scientist


C Ashley, S Bonnist

I Brouwer, C Budgett-Meakin

A Holdemess-Sefu, L Hongpeng

S Karekezi, A Lugemwa

K Kumar & D Hotchkiss

S Nyoni, J Ramakrishna

C Sepp, I Sims, P Watts

Cartoons by P Bradbrook

Proof Reading by R Marshall & Peter Watts

Boiling Point is the journal of the Intermediate Technology Development Group's Stove & Household Energy Programme and the GATE/GTZ Programme. It is printed on recycled paper by Rugby Community Printworks (affiliated to the Rugby Youth Promotion Programme). ITDG is a registered British Charity.

Contributions are welcome in the form of articles of not more than 2,000 words including line drawings, photographs, simple graphs etc., where appropriate. All correspondence should be addressed to Boiling Point, ITDC, Fuel for Food Programme, Myson House, Railway Terrace, Rugby, CV21 3HT, UK.

Opinions expressed in contributory articles are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the ITDG SHE Programme.

(Readers wishing to enter into correspondence with authors may obtain full postal addresses from the address given above.)

Authors, publishers of books, and journals on stoves or stove programmes for the 3rd world are invited to submit copies for review in Boiling Point.


Intermediate Technology's aim is to enable poor people to develop and use productive technologies and methods which give them greater control over their own lives and which contribute to the long-term development of their communities. ITDG is a British charity mainly funded by the Overseas Development Administration.