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close this bookBoiling Point No. 29 - December 1992 (ITDG - ITDG, 1992, 40 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentHousehold Energy Developments in Southern and Africa
View the documentCookstoves in East & Central Africa
View the documentTanzanian Stoves
View the documentCharcoal & Woodfuel Health Hazards
View the documentFrom Clay & Wood to Cast Iron & Coal in South Africa
View the documentHousehold Energy Activities in Uganda
View the documentGTZ Section
View the documentBurundi Institutional Peat Stove Programmes
View the documentWood, Charcoal or Coal for Cooking in Southern Africa
View the documentEnergy & Environment in Zimbabwe
View the documentA New Environmentally Sound Energy Strategy for the Development of Sub-Saharan Africa
View the documentKang-Lianzao Bed Stove
View the documentField Trials of Electrical Heat Storage Cookers in Nepal
View the documentNEWS
View the documentR & D NEWS

GTZ Section

Co-ordination & Advisory Centre for Integrated Household Energy Supply (IHV), P O Box 5180, 6236 Eschborn, Germany,
Tel: 6196 793004-7, Fax: 797325
Editor: E. Metzen

News from Headquarters

The Future of Household Energy Programmes
by Elke Metzen

"The Future of Household Energy Programmes" was the title of a conference held at the beginning of September at Mauloff/Ts in Germany. The IHV project had organized this conference in order to facilitate an internal infortnation exchange among GTZ supported HE projects and to discuss future strategies of the household energy sector. Invited were GTZ project staff from East and West Africa and Asia as well as representatives from cooperating agencies of IHV, like the Foundation for Woodstove Dissemination (FWD/Kenya), Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG/UK) and the Lund Centre for Habitat Studies (LCHS/Sweden).

Problem areas and recommendations for future work were formulated in working groups. Ideas were contributed as to what kind of support implementing projects expect from a coordination and research project like IHV. The topics discussed concentrated on 4 main areas:

Strategy: dissemination approaches, promotion of local enterprises, quality control, awareness raising and concepts of the household energy sector;

Project Management: education, communication, information and monitoring and evaluation;

Project Policy/Project Environment: conflicting objectives within the household energy sector, energy resources and institutions;

Technology: technical research, technology choice, infortnation and training.

From the discussions and suggestions it became obvious that the implementing household energy projects need a back-up unit like IHV, specifically for information finding and exchange, advisory service and policy making.

In the field of lobbying IHV should continue to support the promotion of the household energy sector within GTZ, in the German Ministry of Economic Cooperation and among the group of international donors through the Household Energy Development Organisation Network (HEDON). It was further suggested that the information and advisory service of the IHV should be decentralized in the long run, establishing regional offices in the South. In research IHV was asked to continue to concentrate on cross-sectoral analysis and impact studies. Information was requested on the utilization of local structures for dissemination, commercialization and awareness raising. The IHV was asked to compile a database of competent local experts available for short term consultancies. Training material was requested for quality control, business management for local enterprises and technical development. The participants expressed a need for practical guidelines on baseline assessment, sector management, dissemination and technology appraisal.

Discussing future strategies in the household energy sector, all participants agreed that the future lies in integrated rather than in sector approaches.

New Staff in IHV

Ms Gesa Schoop has been reinforcing the IHV-Team since the beginning of October. She will support household energy projects assisted by GTZ in the fields of planning and implementation. Ms Schoop has been working in the household energy sector for many years.

Ms Ruth Ambrosch started her work as project secretary at the beginning of July.

Reports on Projects


Stoves in San Pedro Norte

Summarized from a report written by Ms Evi Gruber

Being part of the GTZ supported Regional Development Project San Pedro Norte, the project's department for promotion of women deals with the dissemination of improved stoves. A first survey in 1989 had shown that 80% of the interviewees still cooked on an open fire either on the ground or on a special clay table. Only 20% own either an oven or stove. The majority of all women wanted to improved their cooking place. As a result of this survey, dissemination of improved stoves has been integrated into the activities of the department for the promotion of women in the Regional Development Project San Pedro Norte.

Out of the three existing stove models in Paraguay the project decided to promote and upgrade the simple clay stove named Fablocco. It is made from manually pressed bricks, a clay plate on top and two pot holes. This model seems most adapted to the traditional way of cooking. It costs on average one tenth of the price of other existing improved models such as the model developed by a local consulting institution (SEAG) or a cast iron stove model from Brasilia.

To finance the purchase of an improved Fablocco stove that costs approximately US$ 15, women were given the chance to participate in a revolving fund system until all expenses for raw materials needed could be covered.

Therefore, the women did not depend entirely on the cash income the cotton yield provided. A second possibility for financing was offered to members of farmers associations and participants in credit schemes. They could integrate the expenses for such stoves into their financial planning.

To minimize costs and to strengthen solidarity among the beneficiaries it was planned that people should construct the stoves themselves. However, the neighbourhood assistance did not work in most of the cases. In agreement with the community, the project therefore employed and trained a professional stove producer who had to be paid by the households if they wanted him to construct a stove. This way of construction increased the costs of the new stove but was apparently a more successful approach.

The most popular stove model was a construction very similar to the Fablocco stove. It was made of manually pressed bricks but replaced the former clay top plate with an iron plate. The stove had a chimney made of bricks but no backing oven. A stove of this type costs approximately US$ 45 in the owner-build version. If constructed by a professional stove producer costs increased to US$ 75. Although a successful stove model could be developed, the disadvantage remained that not all women who wished to have such a stove could actually afford it.


"I can't take risks"
by Hilda v. Krosigk, Fuel Efficient Cooking Technologies Project (FECT), Peshawar

Ms Krosigk has sent us a story from the field reflecting the situation project staff are confronted with when trying to gain the support of local small-scale enterprises. The entrepreneur here was asked to field-test a new technical development of the project: a fuel saving Pekora stove. During the field-test the local entrepreneur had decided to modify the project's stove quite radically. Boiling Point will follow-up the further technical development of that type of stove and keeps you informed how useful the user's modifications were.

"So this is your wood saving metal stove", said the owner of the small Pakora shop at Charasadda Road in Peshawar. Pakora is a tasty snack consisting of pieces of vegetable coated with grammpie and fried in oil. "Your stove looks rather nice. How much is it?" We told him that it would be Rs 150 but that it was not yet marketed as it needed some field testing with small scale restaurants and food shops. We asked him if he would be willing to cooperate with us and try the stove for Pakora frying, telling us how the stove was performing in comparison to his own stove design.

"The door of your stove is too small for the size of wood I am using" he said "and where does the ash go?" We explained all about the stove "Still, the ash pit seems to be too small", he commented politely. He also argued that the area of air inlet from underneath the grate was not big enough. "I am sorry", he finally said "l think I cannot be of any help to you. I need a well working stove. I have a family, I can't take risks".

We explained that we were ready to change the stove according to his wishes and under these conditions he agreed to have a try on it. Two days later we delivered the adjusted stove to him and another two weeks passed before we paid him the next visit. "It was not a bad stove", he summed-up his experience. "It is quick and stable and it seems to save wood. You people did a good job! " Three weeks later we came to see the Pakora shop again. We hardly recognized our once so shiny and smart looking metal stove. He had plastered it with a thick layer of mud. "It saves more when the heat is kept inside the stove", he explained, "and it is less dangerous. I hope you don't mind. The wood I used to use within three days now lasts longer than a week. That is good". We learned that he had quite a reliable but simple method to find out about firewood savings.

At present he sells Pakora at a shrine outside Peshawar where crowds of people go for Urs, a seasonal pilgrimage to a holy shrine. Pakoras are welcome here as a quick and cheap food. A relative of the man is meanwhile running the shop in Charsadda Road and fully agrees with the shop owner's opinion: "This is not a bad stove".

The Process of Consultation

summarized from a report written by Ms Geraldine Robarts

The Yatta Women's Beekeepers Group is a self-help group of 150 women living in Kitui District in Kenya. The women's group works towards the improvements of health and nutrition in Kitui. The women follow activities in particular associated with the processing of food, be it honey, bread, or sunflower oil, to name a few. An article on the group, that is sponsored by the small-scale fund of the German Ministry for Economic Cooperation, was published in Boiling Point No 26, December 1991: "The bakery of the Yatta Bee Keeping Group, Kenya". Ms Geraldine Robarts has been working as a consultant for the group since 1987. As one of the forthcoming activities she has suggested the launch of a course on consultation supporting those women who train others in the group. Summarized below, you will find the core principles that the Yatta Women's Beekeepers Group is following. We find that these principles certainly do not only apply to this group.

1. Purpose of Consultation

· the views of several individuals are preferable to that of one
· to investigate the truth of an issue
· to develop an atmosphere of courteous cooperation
· to arrive at a solution of a problem
· to establish a basis for unified action

2. Pre Requisites to Effective Consultation

· purity of motive
· positive spirit
· detachment
· attraction to truth
· humility
· patience
· commitment to the spirit of service

3. Pre-Conditions to Effective Consultation

· listen to the opinion of others
· practise humility in front of others
· avoid belittling others' opinions
· banish all forms of prejudice from deliberations
· learn to overlook personality
· overcome the desire to fight and confront
· be wholly free from estrangement
· be dispassionate and cordial
· seek opportunities to praise others.

4. The Process of Consultation

· be committed to reaming the truth and finding solutions
· express views with the utmost courtesy, dignity, care, and moderation

· encourage everyone to freely express their views and thoughts without fear of displeasing others or of being attacked
· search out the truth from every source, the opportunity for free expression is open to all, without any prejudice

· carefully consider the views already advanced by others before expressing your own views
· do not become perturbed or hurt if other views differ from your own
· do not insist upon your own opinion

5. Arriving at a Decision

· consult frankly, with pure motive, candour, singleness of mind and thoroughness of discussion before arriving at a decision

· it is preferable to consult until unanimity is achieved rather than to force expedient decisions
· should differences of opinion arise the majority must prevail
· all must obey and submit to the majority

· individuals should refrain from objecting to or censuring, whether in or out of the meeting, any decision arrived at previously, even though that decision might prove wrong. Premature criticism prevents any decision from being enforced.