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close this bookBoiling Point No. 42 - Household Energy and the Environment (ITDG - ITDG, 1999, 44 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentTheme editorial Improving the environment can lead to benefits for household energy
View the documentEnvironmental implications of the energy ladder in rural India
View the documentHousehold energy and environmental rehabilitation; opportunities and challenges
View the documentDeforestation and forest degradation by commercial harvesting for firewood and charcoal in the Pacific region of Nicaragua
View the documentEffect of expanding sugar-cane farming on community woodfuel collecting areas. Case study in Masindi, Uganda
View the documentWorkshop report on urban waste and energy in developing countries, February 24, 1998
View the documentGTZ pages editor
View the documentIs urban forestry a solution to the energy crisis of Sahelian cities?
View the documentElectricity for low-power applications Micro Solar Lanterns for rural communities in Kenya
View the documentThe bicycle wheel water powered battery charger
View the documentCommunity participation in the development of an improved stove in a cold region of North India
View the documentCommercialization of the Sewa Stove in Mali
View the document'We need it indeed': results of the Boiling Point impact assessment review
View the documentPublications
View the documentWhat's happening in household energy?
View the documentITDG energy news
View the documentBack cover

GTZ pages editor

Household Energy Programme (HEP)
Postfach 5180, 65726 Eschborn, Germany
Tel: +49 6196-79 1618/6354

Editor: Cornelia Sepp

News from Headquarters

Staff Announcement

The composition of the HEP team changed significantly on January 1, since Agnes Klingshirn left the HEP-team. In 1989 she took over HEP as project manager and, since then, has made a strong impact. With great enthusiasm she managed to keep the discussion on household energy alive within GTZ, the BMZ (Bundesministerium fur Wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwidklung)and other institutions, to find co-operative partners and to acquire financial resources. Luckily, Mrs. Klingshirn will continue to support the HEP-Team as a consultant. From this position she will focus on the Southern Africa Regional Programme (ProBEC, see article overleaf) as well as perform her duties as the general HEP advisor. In a shared-job post within the new team, Anke Weymann and Karin Roeske have taken over the position of team leader from Agnes Klingshirn while retaining their respective previous duties as backstoppers for the HEPs and components in French-speaking Africa (Mrs. Weymann) and English-speaking Africa (Mrs. Roeske).

Figure 1: Participants of the ProBEC workshop in Harare

Ruth Ambrosch will remain head of the secretariat. She will concentrate further on the establishment and maintenance of an information and communication network for HEP and the regional or country programmes. All project-specific technical and conceptual tasks, as well as all financial activities, will still be carried out by Birgit Starkenberg.

Workshop on community forestry

An international workshop on community forestry entitled "Participatory Forest Management as a Strategy for Sustainable Use of Forests in Africa" took place at Banjul from 26th to 30th of April. The workshop focused on the institutional framework and the processes which are paramount in fostering community forestry. Banjul, Gambia hosted the workshop. Gambia has begun to put into practice community forestry and has been supported in these activities by GTZ since 1988. As many as 400 villages are now actively involved in these measures. The relevant political and legal foundations have been laid and these have translated into definite property rights and land use regulations for communities.

The event was targeted at policy makers in the field of natural resource management, and staff of governmental organizations, NGOs, and donor organisations were invited to attend. For more information on outputs from the workshop, please contact:

Mrs Katherine Warner, Community Forestry Unit, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 0100 Rome, Italy, Tel.: 003906570533256; Fax: 00390657055514; e-mail: Katherine.

The MESAP Planning System

The Modular Energy System Analysis and Planning Environment (MESAP) is a tool for integrated energy and environmental planning. It was developed at the Institute for Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (IER), University of Stuttgart. It is used, for example in the GTZ-supported project 'Combustibles Domestiques' in Senegal. MESAP integrates different modular energy planning models through a central database system called NetWork. Figure 1 shows the diagram of the MESAP architecture. MESAP is being developed for PC's with a 'Windows' based graphical user interface.

The MESAP system was designed to support every phase of integrated energy planning and thus assists the decision-making process in a pragmatic way, from the problem definition phase up to finding the right decisions. Several components assist the decision making process. These include features for:

· the documentation of strategic issues within the case study,

· the set-up and documentation of the network structure of the energy system,

· the set-up and documentation of the equation system for model calculation,

· the assistance in the development, management and documentation of cases,

· the data entry, management and documentation,

· the tabular and graphical analysis of the results,

· the creation of standard reports,

· the evaluation of the results based on the analytical hierarchy process,

· setting up a monitoring system.

Figure 1: The MESAP-III modeling concept

The Concept of the Reference Energy System (RES)

The MESAP philosophy is based on a process-engineering representation of real energy systems. The energy system is represented as a network of commodities and processes, the Reference Energy System (RES). The RES is a portrayal of the energy system in network form, in which the production, the transformation and utilization of energy is portrayed as network links. Each path through the energy systems network indicates a possible route for the flow of energy from an energy resource to a given demand category. In all cases the basic procedure is to:

· identify processes or sectors into which the new resource or technology will be substituted,

· establish feasible rates of introduction of the resource/technology and levels of introduction in future reference years,

· produce a new system description reflecting the changes for the appropriate years,

· calculate the change in resource consumption, cost, and other objective functions.

NetWork: the Common Database Management System of MESAP

NetWork is a model independent database management system at the core of MESAP that fulfills two functions: it serves as a case study information system that offers retrieval features like current information management tools and it can be used as a standardized database for process-engineering oriented planning models.

Besides being a database for planning models, NetWork is at the same time an information system for the case study. NetWork allows the storage of any information related to objects in the RES. This includes technical, regional and sectoral data, modeling parameters, assumptions and results.

Contact: Institute for Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (IER), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70550 Stuttgart, Germany, Contact Person: Christoph Schlenzig Tel: +49 (711) 685-7558; Fax: +49 (721) 685-7567; E-Mail: CS@ier. uni-stuttgart. de


The implementation phase of the 'Programme for Biomass Energy Conservation' (ProBEC) in the south of Africa (Lesotho, Namibia, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe) started with the employment of the programme co-ordinator on 01.09.1998.

ProBEC is a joint supra-regional programme between SADC, the European Commission (EC) and the German Government. Most of the financial support comes from the Forestry Sector of the EC. The German Agency for Technical Co-operation (GTZ) is commissioned to implement ProBEC.

ProBEC started in January 1997 with an orientation phase carrying out first inception missions to six potential countries (Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe) and introducing various stakeholders to the concept, objectives and range of activities that can be supported by ProBEC. During the orientation phase till June 1998 national workshops were conducted in the partner countries.

In the meantime National ProBEC steering committees have been established in several partner countries in order to co-ordinate the countries' activities. A regional ProBEC office has been opened up in Harare in January 1999, consisting of the programme co-ordinator, a regional energy adviser and a secretary (address see below).

A regional workshop took place in Harare in October 1998. Together with representatives of the partner countries the ProBEC plan was discussed in detail, roles and responsibilities of the different partners involved were defined and the plans for action for the participating countries as well as for the regional ProBEC office were developed.

The first demonstration project has started in Malawi. It aims at the introduction of integrated energy saving measures for households and small business into interested projects/programmes. The decision on the project site, the border area of the Nyika National Park (Rumphi district) was taken on the base of baseline survey on biomass use and demand, including the identification of interest of organisations and projects for energy saving measures. In a community based planning workshop in February 1999, the targeted population as well as the extension services in the area planned in detail the project concept and workplan. Commitments to the project will come mostly from the Border Zone Development Project (BZDP) which is supported by GTZ.

GTZ Office, 1 Orange Grove Drive/Highlands, PO Box 2406, Harare. Tel: 00263-4-496 723 or 496 724. Fax: 00263-4-495 628.

Gender and Household Energy

The roles and responsibilities of men and women in managing household energies are taken into account by the approach of the PED (Household Energy Programme Sahel, HEP/GTZ). The problems associated with household energy do not exist in isolation, but need to be seen in the context of all areas of life, such as energy, environment, health, education, securing food, the creation of enterprises, programmes for the improvement in the living conditions of women, etc.

The role of men and women in the management of Household energy

Demand for HE (wood, charcoal) The roles and responsibilities which men and women assume in the management of the environment are very unbalanced in the Sahel countries. The use of HE is generally considered as a 'women's affair'. In effect, women and children collect 91% of the firewood in rural areas. The duty of supplying wood is rendered more difficult by the scarcity of natural resources and thus by the exceedingly long time needed to search for it.

In urban surroundings, an important share of the family budget (generated by the women) is devoted to HE. It is the women who cook the meals mostly with an inefficient use of energy from wood and charcoal. Traditional stoves are not very efficient and improved technologies are not used on a large scale. The consequences of this situation particularly affect women and children, for instance, the smoke which arises in the kitchen damages their health.

Men are rarely found working at the household energy level. In the urban setting, they participate in the transport of wood for its commercialisation. They are supposed to purchase combustibles and cooking utensils for the households.

Supply of household energy The first interventions by forest projects were mainly oriented towards the training of male village groups for the creation of nurseries and the propagation of reforestation techniques.

The application of methods of sensitisation, developed with the support of GRAAP (Group of Research and Support for the Self-promotion of Farmers), in the 1980s has started the process of a more intensive participation of women.

The 'improved stoves' initiative, above all, was the most important step in the process of mobilising women for environmental protection.

The female village representatives have profited from courses on plant production techniques, plant establishment and even the construction of raised seed beds. The impact of this training has taken effect in the establishment of forest nurseries in association with the market gardens which are looked after by female groups. Generally, some of the seedlings are used for family and collective plantations. The remainder is destined for sale. This share represents an important income source in the villages which have been mobilised for reforestation.

Female groups use their plantation to satisfy their need for firewood and for sale. Women participate to a great extent in the management of forests - production of firewood, agriculture, extraction of shea butter, milk production, honey production, etc..

As active members of mixed forest management groups women carry out a number of activities, such as:

· the collection of dead wood, the arrangement and sale of bundles to the wholesale transporters news

· the selected cutting of trees for sale to the wholesale transporters

· the harvest of seeds and seedlings on a large scale with a view to reforest large areas which have been cleared by immigrant groups.

According to a study conducted by APRET (Association for the Protection and Restoration of the Environment) when assessing who does the most important tasks, 67% of the forest farmers are women.

Women are also involved in the retail sale of wood and charcoal (70% of retailers of the city of Ouagadougou are women).

In the field of supply, men are the active members of mixed forest management groups. Men make charcoal from wood and they are wholesale transporters of the charcoal. 30% of forest farmers are men (APRET study).

Production of Household energy equipment

Craftsmen were trained and completed refresher courses during the 1980s on making and selling improved metal stoves, and potters were trained in the construction of improved clay and other stoves. These represent a potential source of income. Reasons for explaining the limited number of women participating in the training are:

· tradition in the trades of artisans and potters

· features of the trade, which demands a lot of independence (mobility)

· women have limited access to credit facilities (despite efforts to correct this situation)

Figure 1: Household energy is the base for many income-generating activities of women

PED Sahel, gender and household energy

PED Sahel gives special attention to women in the sense that the advocated measures aim to improve their well-being at home and in the kitchen: health, education, food security, etc.

The 'women and energy' sub-regional workshop, organized in December 1997 at Ouagadougou, has, among other issues, underlined the necessity to improve certain political and legal conditions which will allow woman to participate in an adequate way in the generation of national income. It will look also at the necessity for women to acquire expertise in energy issues (land ownership, participation in political decisions) for sustainable development at all levels.

In this way PED Sahel strongly supports the technological improvements which increase the efficiency and the choice of solutions appropriate for the demands of women, households and small and medium sized enterprises.

The programme gives support to institutions, projects, NGOs and women's associations with the objective of creating more equilibrium in the management of resources and in the capacities of participating in development. Over the next few years PED Sahel will commit itself to training women and girls and will work to support their participation in the design, production, execution and post-evaluation of HE programmes.

HEP on Internet

You can also get in touch with the Household Energy Programme (HEP) via INTERNET: - there you will find basic information on its activities and direct e-mail access for recommendations, inquiries, etc.

At the moment the web-page 'links' is under construction. For suggestions please contact Ruth Ambrosch (see address above) who is responsible for the HEP-INTERNET editing.


Project and Stove Design for Large Scale Cooking in Developing Countries

The HEP publication 'Project and Stove Design for Large Scale Cooking in Developing Countries' has been reviewed and will be re-edited in May.

The booklet aims to give support for planning, organising and implementing energy efficient kitchen technologies for institutions and community facilities. It introduces different types of large scale cooking stoves for various uses, e.g. boarding schools, hospitals, prisons and gives an overview of the technical and economic data including design drawings. Furthermore it describes important aspects of marketing, maintenance and safety, as well as the implications of the social, cultural and economic settings which are likely to determine the aspects of acceptance for innovations.

'Project and Stove Design for Large Scale Cooking in Developing Countries' has been produced in co-operation with the Foundation for Woodstove Dissemination (FWD) an African NGO based in Nairobi.

Haushaltsenergie und Umwelt - Leitfaden zur Erfassung und Bewertung der ogischen Wirkungen von Haushaltsenergieprojekten

Energie Domestique et Environnement - Un manual pour analyser et luer les impacts logiques de projets d'rgie domestique.

A handbook to analyse and evaluate the ecological impacts of household energy projects has been elaborated by Environmental Concept on behalf of HEP/GTZ. This handbook will be edited within the next weeks and will be available in German and French. An English version will follow within the next months.

The handbook conveys methods in measuring the ecological effects of improved stoves at the household level. It is dedicated to project staff and focuses on biochemical and physical parameters as indicators for environmental pollution, with a view to environmental protection. These guidelines are an indispensable tool in the fieldwork within the context of household energy measures and related areas such as health, environmental and resource protection as well as their social and economic, local and global implications.

Both publications are available from:

Gesellschaft fhnische Zusammenarbeit mbH (GTZ), Household Energy Programme (HEP), Attn. Ruth Ambrosch, Postfach 5180, 65726 Eschborn, Germany E-mail:

Films on household energy issues available now

The film project which was jointly implemented by HEP/GTZ and the "Deutschen Welthungerhilfe" has come to an end. Two films have been produced. One is a 20 minutes documentary which aims at sensitising national decision-makers and policy planners to the importance of the rational use of biomass. The second film is directly targeted to households and small-scale enterprises promoting the use of energy saving technologies.

The two films are available in German, English and French. Whenever possible, a HEP-team-member will give an introduction to the film.