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close this bookBoiling Point No. 21 - April 1990 (ITDG - ITDG, 1990, 44 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentCoal Briquette Technology & Policy for Development
View the documentCookstove Smoke & Health
View the documentFuel Consumption Per Head a Misleading Concept ?
View the documentWhere Expertise Counts ?
View the documentMonitoring & Evaluation of Stove Programmes
View the documentFocus on the Shortage of Metal in the Sudan
View the documentPublicity for Stoves Programmes in Fiji
View the documentAn Aspect of Women & Stove Production in Tanzania
View the documentBetter Bread Ovens
View the documentThe Silkalon Stove
View the documentClean Combustion of Wood
View the documentAlternative Rural Energy Strategies in Zimbabwe
View the documentThe Stove - A Target Orientation Programme
View the documentA View of Improved Stoves Prospects in Sudan
View the documentRWEPA NEWS
View the documentStove Journal Profiles
View the documentLetter to the Editor
View the documentNews



Intermediate Technology's Education Office has been very much involved in some exciting innovative work in schools in England.

In November and December 1989 a school in Cheshire ran a seven week project on Sri Lanka, with its 12~13 year olds. Eight departments collaborated and a truly coherent educational experience was achieved.

The pupils were organised in groups of 5, each of which designed and built a stove and used it to cook Sri Lankan food.

December 18th was the final day of evaluation: visitors from IT were treated to Sri Lankan food, cooked on fuel-efficient stoves designed and built by the pupils, to a game based round development issues, a play, a Buddhist assembly and a display of excellent design and work folders which clearly indicated a grasp of the complexities and choices faced by Sri Lankans. As one visitor said, the pupils had come to see Sri Lankans as ordinary people just like themselves with many of the same needs and wants.

Not only did they learn about Sri Lanka, they also learnt that the materials to make stoves have to be carefully chosen and tested and that making clay stoves which do not crack is very difficult. Sri Lankan potters must have a lot of skill and experience.

The following comments were made during the project:

"I know it looks like a loo seat but it really works" enthused 12 year old whose stove design really did work. Not only did it work but he could justify every Aspect of the stove from the point of view of a Sri Lankan housewife!

"Everywhere smoke billowed, Sri Lankan food sizzled and school children waved lyrical about what they had leamt. In the maths room computers analysed a questionnaire about children's attitudes to development; in the geography room a development game was played out; on the stage scenes from the Ramayana were brought to life; in the art room, yet more stove designs were being made".

"Judging by the stoves, these childrens' articulate answers to my questions and their superb workbooks" claimed Simon Burne "they have learnt more in 6 weeks than I learnt at school in one year".

This project has stimulated great interest among the education authorities and the IT Education Office is now developing In Service Training Courses for Teachers (INSET) to enable lT's approach to development to become better known. Catherine Budgett Aticakin ITDG, Development Education Officer.

Study On Improved Cookstove Technology

Reproduced from the 15J88/89 Annual Report of CORT, Delhi' India

The Indian National programme on Improved Cookstoves is now more than five years old. More than four million stoves have already been installed in different parts (rural as well as urban) of the country. At the NGO level, the Consortium on Rural Technology has implemented a number of programmer to disseminate Cookstove technology all over the country. It is accepted that the Cookstove programme has been able to create awareness amongst different sections of the people on the need to have improved cookstoves, but there are controversial reports on its impact on their users.

To continue the NGO's efforts on Cookstove technology, the Consortium proposes to undertake a study to be conducted at the field level on the performance of improved Cookstove technology in six different regions of the country. The study is envisaged as a co-ordinated effort between different research groups and field agencies. The methodology of the study would be essentiality to involve and identify villages where the programme has been fairly successful and to select two groups of households:

1. Using improved Chulhas

2. Using traditional Chulhas

About 20 households in each group would be identified. The study is proposed to be conducted in Bihar, Tamil Nadu U.P. Hills, Rajasthan, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh.

Improved Biocoal Stove Philippines

FAO Wood Energy News - Sol 4 No. 2 July l 989

In October 1987, the Forest Products Research Development Institute, Dendro Energy Division, with support from FAO/RWEDP, established a modest Cookstove Testing and Development Laboratory at Los Banos, College Laguna main office. The Laboratory is manned by 2 technical staff and a number of technicians. Fifty two artisan built commercial stoves, collected from five Luzon regions and Metro Manila at prices ranging from P5 to P850, were tested. Simultaneously a biocoal stoves, patterned after the portable improved Thai bucket stove was also developed using a concrete cast body instead of the original ceramic liner. Internal insulation lining and grate were made of mixtures of rice husk ash and clay. This FPRDI biocoal stove showed the second highest heat utilization efficiency of 30.and the highest power to boil.

About 100 biocoal stoves have been built for sale to housewives in 'Laguna towns to test the user's acceptability. If successful, this may provide a good opportunity for village enterpreneurs producing this stove for sale (at a price of roughly P50 a piece) in addition to the conservation of the biomass resource.


The Sudan Renewable Energy Project works in four areas of technology: fuelwood production and forestry; charcoal stoves; briquetting of biomass residues; and water pumping.

The work in forestry and fuelwood is aimed at supporting the dissemination of innovative technologies which show potential for producing fuelwood and charcoal on a sustainable basis. By means of a programme which provides small grants to villages, private individuals, and large agricultural schemes, SREP supports private and public nurseries: agroforestry technologies such as windbreaks, shelterbelts, and alley cropping; village forestry; and charcoal production from mechanized farms.

This focus on the augmentation of the supply of fuelwood and charcoal is accompanied by efforts to disseminate energy efficient charcoal stoves in Khartoum and in other major towns. The commercialization of two stove models is being promoted by the project in collaboration with CARE/Sudan and the FAO Fuelwood Development for Energy project. The design of the Canun el Sarour is based on the Kenyan ceramic Jiko, while the Canun el Azza is a version of the Thai bucket stove. Both stoves use a ceramic grate held in a metal cladding to diminish thermal losses and thus reduce the consumption of charcoal.

To focus regional efforts to commercialize efficient stoves, the project helped organize a very successful regional workshop on the commercialization of

cookstoves which was held in Khartoum in December 1988. The proceedings of the workshop have been published by the project.

Reproduced from the Newsletter of the Sudan Research Council.

Kerosene Stoves - Call for Research Proposals

On behalf of The Netherlands Ministry for International Cooperation ("DGIS"), Matrix Consultants seek to identify relevant and practically oriented research proposals from individuals and institutes concerning domestic kerosene-burning cookstoves.

These proposals should aim at kerosene stoves (using wicks or pressure nozzles), that are to be used in developing countries in Africa as substitutes fair current biomass stoves.

The process will be phased as follows:

1. A world-wide general invitation to send in ideas and suggestions. Last submission: end of April 1990.

2. First selection of 6-10 ideas. The people or institutes concerned will be invited to elaborate these into detailed research proposals. Proposals will be expected around May/June 1990.

3. Second selection of 2-4 proposals to be channelled through procedures for full DGIS funding.

Interested persons or institutes are kindly requested to consider the following:

· give a brief and concise outline of the suggested research;

· sum estions may also include already existing successful models (e.g. from Asia) for dissemination elsewhere;

· indicateyour organization's qualifications and experience; include an estimation of the costs for writing up a detailed research proposal (in case the suggestion is selected);

· the final results of the research will be the property of D(.1S and will be made available to international development at no cost.

Contact address for more information, questions and proposals: 3512 GM {Jtrecht, The Netherlands.

Far: + 31 30 322568,
Tef : +31 30310784.
Telex :+ 044 59048 ref:box:matrix.

ITDG Project Goes up in Smoke!

by Peter Young' ITDG

There is considerable evidence to show that the typical levels of emissions from open fires in many households in the Third World are a major cause of acute respiratory infraction (ARI). Any reductions in these levels will improve household conditions and generally add to the healthy well being of women and children who are at most risk. However, the prospects of achieving reduction remain a little uncertain when considering recent world wide experiences with the dissemination of improved cookstoves. Technological inventions for removing smoke such as chimnies and inherrently better combustion in stoves are generally recognised as being an effective way of reducing emissions, but in many instances giving priority to removing smoke bring some conflict while trying to achieve many other benefits such as maximising fuel savings, space heating and maintaining an element of insect repellent and roofing preservation. In Sri Lanka it has proven to be very difficult to disseminate chimney stoves because the removal of smoke has created tradeoffs in terms of fuel savings plus the added problems with maintaining the effectiveness of the chimney have not encouraged high acceptability.

As more stove projects move towards a commercial approach with the lessening in levels of subsidies, this brings into question what is the extra cost of removing smoke and are households prepared to pay the full cost. Where they are not, stoves that maximise fuel savings and time savings will take precedence and the health issue will remain unresolved.

ITDG has taken the opportunity to look at the earlier research on smoke emissions and are planning a project to build upon these experiences and intend to investigate the cost of removing smoke. The work will initially focus on tea estate housing in Sri Lanka.

If any readers have further information on the reduction of smoke for different stove configuration, contact P Young, ITDG.

Boiling is the journal of the Intermediate Technology Development Croup's Fuel for.Food Programme and is now printed on 100% recycled paper by Rugby Community Printworks, (affiliated to the Rugby Youth Promotion Programme) founded in 1979 to serve the local community.

Contributions are welcome in the form of articles of not more than 1,000 words plus line drawings, photographs, simple graphs etc. where appropriate. All correspondence should he addressed to Boiling Paint, ITDG, Fuel for Food Programme, Mvson House, Railway Terrace, Rugby, CV21 3HT, UK

Opinion expressed in contributory articles is that of the authors and not necessarily that of the ITDG Fuel for rood Programme.

(Readers wishing to enter into correspondence may obtain full postal addresses from the address given above).

Editorial and Production Team

Tammy Flavell - Production Manager Ian Grant - Editor Peter Young Kathryn Clarke Simon Burne

Contributors: A A Abusam, C Bolabola R Burton, E Crewe H M Eisa, S Errey M Gamser (Editorial), D Hancock F Hottenroth, S Joseph B Lawson, B MacGarry Yu-shi Mao, K K Prasad J Ramakrishna, E Schutte A Sefu, K R Smith P Verhaart, A Xavier

Cartoons by Peter Bradbrook

Contributions to Boiling Point

Contributions are invited for the next three issues of Boiling Point, the main themes of which will be:

No. 22 - Stoves Other Uses
No. 23 - Measures of Success
No. 24

Articles for these issues should reach this office by the end of June for issue No. 22, the end of October for issue No. 23 and end of February for issue


A Quick Reminder !

Subscription still remains at £9.00 for three issues.

Please return subscription form enclosed in last edition of Boiling Point (20) to ensure receipt of future copies.

Even if you are unable to pay, please return this form with your details so we can then enter this information on our circulation list.

Technical Enquiries to ITDG

One of the most valuable services provided by lTDG is in answering technical enquiries. The stove team and its associates are at your service in this way and have answered many enquiries over the last 6 years.

Boiling Point now has a column for stove enquiries we have received and for which we invite readers suggestions.

Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITAG) is a British charity dedicated to increasing income generating capabilities of poor people in rural areas of the developing world. ITDC lives advice in the choice of appropriate technologies and provides assistance to local development projects aimed at improving the productivity of communities and small enterprises. Boiling Point is mainly funded by the UK Overseas Development Administration.