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close this bookBoiling Point No. 22 - August 1990 (ITDG - ITDG, 1990, 44 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentSTOVES - OTHER USES
View the documentOther Uses of Stoves
View the documentPuffing Rice
View the documentBiogas Properties, Stoves and Lamps
View the documentBellerive Develops Bakery Oven for Kenya
View the documentThe Bakery Programme - A Successful Way of Food Commercialization
View the documentExpanded Coal Utilization Project
View the documentHousehold Cooking Fuel
View the documentCompany House Kitchens
View the documentKeep Your Wood Dry
View the documentSelf-help For Forests
View the documentThe Clay Testing Centre for Improved Stoves in the Sudan
View the documentPromotion Of The Duma Institutional Wood Stove In Tanzania
View the document''REDI'' Stove Trials in Haiti
View the documentSolar Box Cooker Demonstration in Somalia
View the documentThe Kelly Kettle
View the documentExtentionists' Blues !
View the documentTHAI BUCKET
View the documentGATE/GTZ NEWS
View the documentEDUCATION
View the documentNEWS
View the documentLetters to the Editor


Since 1986 GATE/GTZ has published on an irregular basis what has come to be known as the "HERDRUNDBRIEF".

Its aim was to improve cooperation between the various stove projects and to provide information on new developments.

Although this newsletter generally met with approval from the readers, many people regretted the fact that it was only available in German and therefore could not be read by local project staff. Unfortunately, cash reasons prevented translation into the languages of the various project regions.

In order to rectify this shortcoming and to widen the flow of information, a cooperation agreement has been concluded between ITDG and GATE/GTZ for the joint publication of boiling point. as well as involvement on the editorial side, there will be about four pages for information and reports on the work of GATE/GTZ stove projects.

Comments should be addressed to Dr Agnes Klingshirn, c/o GTZ, OE 4020, Postfach 51800, D-6236 Eschborn 1, West Germany. the appearance of Boiling Point No.22 marks the beginning of this cooperation and we hope that the joint publication will open up new opportunities, particularly because of the larger circulation achieved and the linking of GATE/GTZ and ITDG know-how.

GATE/GTZ Coordination 8 Advisory Centre For Integrated Household Energy Supply

by Dr Agnes Klingshirn, GATE/GTZ, who previously worked in the Women and Energy Project in Kenya, is responsible for the implementation of the following programme:

The ''integrated Household Energy Supply" ("IHES") project administrated by the German Appropriate Technology Exchange is based on the results of the "Dissemination Programme for Fuelwood Saving Stoves and Ovens" which has been in existence since 1985.

The focal point of this previous project phase was the coordination and support of stove dissemination programmes and project-related components in Barbados, Burkina Faso, Ecuador, the Ivory Coast, Cape Verde, Kenya, Mali, Niger and Pakistan. Some of these projects, e.g. Burkina Faso, have been successfully completed and are now managed by local experts. Other projects are still being supported.

In addition to the coordination of the programmes in the individual countries, other measures were carried out on an international basis. Information on the results can be obtained from: Deutsche Gesellschaft Fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, OE 4020, Postfach 51 80, 6236 Eschborn 1, West Germany.

Among these were:

· a seminar to monitor and evaluate stove dissemination projects,

· determination and comparative assessment of the field tests methods applied in GTZ projects,

· Iiterature research on the development of health-dumaging substances in food when cooked by the hay box method,

· study of the economics of appropriate technologies with special consideration of stove dissemination projects,

· quantitative and qualitative examination of toxic l as emissions,

· impact analyses of selected projects.

This present second project phase of IHES is aimed at closing the remaining gaps in knowledge and making the experience gained available to a broader circle of interested parties.

In order to achieve this certain tasks must be completed. These tasks can be classified under three fields of activity.

1. Implementation of technical and socio-scientific research work and cross-sector analyses.

The most serious knowledge gap in this field is the lack of a suitable instrument for comparative assessment of projects in the field of integrated household energy supply. This shortcoming should be resolved by the devising of joint Monitoring and Evaluation Guidelines by the various implementing organisations. The results of the first seminar on this subject in April 1989 led to a agreement that these M & E guidelines be developed jointly with ITDG and FWD in collaboration with ESMAP. A workshop on this subject involving the above-mentioned organisations is planned for the second half of 1990. Bois de Feu has also been invited to join this effort.

It is also planned to collect scientific data on the effects of IHES projects by means of cross-sector impact analyses. Some of the aspects under consideration are studies in the fields of environment, health, sociocultural environment, economy and the situation of women. In this connection it is planned that the toxic gas study in Kenya will be continued as a long-term project.

In the technical field the tasks were, on the one hand, considered to be the adaptation of technical solutions to the conditions of each location and on the other hand the implementation of pilot activities for the development of proposals for alternative solutions. Two measures planned are pilot activities for the substitution of fuelwood and the extension of stove technology to other energy users.

2. Expansion of the information and advisory service.

The information and advisory service is a further core element of the new project. Only a range of qualified advisory services available to all interested parties can achieve successful dissemination of experience in the IHES field and help to avoid mistakes being repeated. The advisory service will be made available to the German Technical Cooperation projects, partner organisations' projects, individual people and also to the projects of other executing agencies, particularly non-governmental organisations.

The core activity of this field is the processing of available experience as well as the collection, evaluation and classification of literature. Moreover, it is planned to establish a data bank in collaboration with other organisations interested. This data bank will contain details of research and development schemes.

3. Strengthening international cooperation

The task of this field is to serve the international exchange of knowledge and experience so that greater project implementation effectiveness can be achieved.

The focal point of the work is the support and development of local know-how in the developing countries themselves. This should be accompanied by the increased promotion of innovative approaches in the field of IHES.

Various activities are planned in order to achieve this. They will include the support of international networks, the organisation of regional and international seminars, the initiation of personnel exchange programmes from various projects as well as the support of training measures including those of NGO-projects. Applications are invited from local NGOs or individuals for support for promising new approaches or technical innovations.


by Bernd Benthin, economist, staff member of Projekt-Consult, Beratungin Entwicklungslander GmbH, working in the field of stove dissemination programmes since 1985.

These pages will contain reports on the situation of GATE/GTZ stove dissemination activities in selected projects. Apart from independent stove dissemination programmes, GTZ also implements stove dissemination components within the framework of broader based measures (projects). The dissemination of the majority of these component parts takes place within the framework of Special Energy Programmes. The aim of these special energy programmes, which have been supported at national level by GTZ since the beginning of the eighties, is to provide a contribution to the effective/economical energy supply of a country by utilizing its national energy resources.

Burkina Faso

The stove component of the Special Energy Programme in Burkina Faso was supported by a German contribution from 1983 to the end of 1988.

The aim of the project was the development and dissemination of household stoves and equipment for community cooking and dolo brewing.

By the beginning of 1989 approximately 350,000 improved three-stone stoves had been disseminated. The construction of such stoves is largely propagated in rural areas through training measures for women and promotional activities. Moreover, 40,000 metal stoves were produced by local craftsmen and largely disseminated in urban centres. In addition, 200 institutional stoves and 800 stoves for dolo breweries were produced and disseminated. The local executing agency, Institute Burkinabe de l'Energie, is now solely responsible for the project.


The Special Energy Programme in Niger is aimed at contributing to the optimal utilization of renewable energies. In this respect the stove dissemination components provide the largest contribution to the energy savings achieved by the project. The stove dissemination activities mainly concentrate on urban centres with activities taking place in Niamey and selected towns in the departments of Tillabery, Dosso und Tahoua. The surrounding rural areas are included in the dissemination measures. Dissemination involves a metal stove, the so-called Mai Sauki, the development of which was based on a locally existing metal stove model - the "foyer malagache". The Mai Sauki is mainly made from old oil drums and is produced in several sizes by local craftsmen. If used correctly, the fuelwood savings of the Mai Sauki are approximately 20% higher than those of the "foyer malgache".

The focal point of the dissemination activities is in the field of sensitivity measures and the project is aided in this respect by the national association of women (AFN - Association des Femmes du Niger), whose level of organisation is particularly high in the towns.

According to recent research, the dissemination level of the stove model propagated by the project is approximately 25% of all urban households. The aim of a second project phase begun at the end of 1989 is to extend the stove dissemination activities to small towns in rural areas. In the future it is expected that this section will be seen by the projects themselves as a forum for exchanging information. The IHES will only be responsible for collecting the information and editing it for publication.

Economic Study

GTZ is currently carrying out a study of the economics of stove dissemination projects aimed at devising standardised methods for calculating the socioeconomic value of stove dissemination projects. The research will include data on the economy at household and manufacturer level as well as regional level.

This study is based on project experience in Burkina Faso, Ecuador, Kenya, Niger, Pakistan and Tanzania and will report at the end of 1990. It will also contain important indicators and proposals for the socio-economic evaluation of stove projects.