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close this bookTraining for Elected Leadership - The Councillor as Policy-maker (HABITAT, 1994, 20 p.)
close this folderPart II: Workshop councillor as policy-maker
View the documentOverview
View the document2.1 Warm-up exercise: policy recall
View the document2.2 Exercise: a policy-maker's quiz
View the document2.3 Trainer presentation
View the document2.4 Case study: Lukasa's waste-management
View the document2.5 Skill practice exercise
View the document2.6 Skill transfer exercise



Governing a local government requires that elected leaders decide on goals and then transform these goals into programmes and services through declarations of policy. In other words, policy represents the critical juncture between what government has decided to do (its goals and purposes) and how it intends to do it (action strategies and plans).

Goals ® Policies ® Strategies

This workshop is designed to inform participants about the nature of local-government policy, how it is made, and how to distinguish policies from problems goals and strategies. Participants who complete this workshop will understand the importance of policy-making as a deliberate process and the consequences of governance by unintentional policy.


A brief description of each learning activity is shown below with an approximation of the amount of time required. If you wish to change the order, to omit something, or to add training material of your own, feel free to do so.

2.1 Warm-up exercise: policy recall

Participants reflect on their own experiences with public policies that have been enacted or should have been. (45 - 60 minutes)

2.2 Exercise: a policy-maker's quiz

Participants identify from a list which statements are policies, goals, problems, and strategies, first working alone and then in small groups. Results are compared. (60 - 75 minutes)

2.3 Trainer presentation

Brief presentation on the role of councillors as policy-makers. Draw on material from the preceding essay to describe the policy-making process to distinguish among goals, policies, and strategies. Describe who is involved in the process of policy-making and the various approaches for carrying out a policy dialogue. (30 minutes)

2.4 Case study: Lukasa's waste-management plan

Participants read a case situation describing the successful development of a waste-management plan by a city council and, working in small groups, identify the problems, goals, policies, and strategies implied by the situation. (60 - 75 minutes)

2.5 Skill practice exercise

Working in small groups, participants discuss problems each of them has in their cities, select one of them, and write a goal statement, policy statement, and one or more strategies for achieving the goal. (90 - 120 minutes)

2.6 Skill transfer exercise

Participants reflect on what they have learned and make personal commitments to put it to use after the workshop. (30 - 45 minutes)