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close this bookDisaster Preparedness - 2nd Edition (DHA/UNDRO - DMTP - UNDP, 1994, 66 p.)
close this folderPART 1 - Planning for disaster preparedness
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentVulnerability assessment
View the documentPlanning
View the documentInstitutional structure
View the documentInformation systems
View the documentResource base
View the documentWarning systems
View the documentResponse mechanisms
View the documentPublic education and training
View the documentRehearsals
View the documentCASE STUDY
View the documentSUMMARY

Response mechanisms

Disaster Preparedness Framework

Vulnerability
Assessment

Planning

Institutional
Framework

Information
Systems

Resource
Base

Warning
Systems

Response
Mechanisms

Public Education
and Training

Rehearsals

There are a vast number of responses that ought to be considered. Each response depends upon the nature of the threat. Some of the broader categories of response for a variety of hazards include:

· evacuation procedures

· search and rescue

· security of affected areas

· assessment teams

· activating special installations (such as emergency hospital facilities)

· activating distribution systems

· preparing emergency reception centers and shelters activating emergency programs for airports, harbors and land transport

Once an effective disaster preparedness plan is in place, these response mechanisms should be familiar to potential beneficiaries or to those with the responsibilities of implementing such measures. The matrix found on page 28 demonstrates a range of needs which may arise in different types of emergencies.

Needs which may, arise in different types of emergency

Sectors in which UNICEF assistance might be considered

Needs frequently experienced

C Depending on climate: may be needed if weather is cold and/or wet

Needs sometimes experienced

.. Needs rarely arise (or usually of low priority).

Where disasters occur in combination - e.g. floods following a tropical storm - the combined effects/needs must be considered.

Sudden, cataclysmic disasters

Long-term, continuing emergencies

Sector in which needs may arise

Earth-quakes

Storms

Floods

Droughts, famines 8

Conflicts

Displaced populations

Food, nutrition and income








Short-term general ration distribution


Agricultural production

.. 1


Long-term selective provision of employment and/or food

U

..

R


Nutrition surveillance

..


Special feeding2

..

..

Health services








Reinforcement of management and personnel

3


Reconstruction, transport and equipment

..


Drugs and other supplies

3

..


Surveillance for communicable diseases

..


Immunization

..

..


Diarrhoea control

..

..

Water supplies








Distribution, storage, treatment


Rehabilitation/development of sources

5

5

5

Sanitation








Excreta disposal

..

U

..


Garbage/refuse disposal

U

..


Personal hygiene

..

U

..


Vector control

..

..

Shelter and household functioning








Emergency shelter

C

C

..

..

C


Reconstruction

7

..


Blankets

C

C

C

..

C

C


Household utensils etc

7

..

Child care and social services








Community social services


Unaccompanied children


Schools/education

..

Overall management and logistics








Reinforcement of management capacity and systems


Transport, vehicles, fuel, spares, maintenance


Storage facilities

Possible secondary effects/disasters

Fires,
landslides,
local floods,
tsunamis

Floods,
landslides,
storm surge.


Displaced
populations

Displaced
populations


U Primarily in urban areas.

R Primarily in rural areas

1 Only if major irrigation works damaged

2 Assuring appropriate weaning foods and food for vulnerable groups (possible supplementary feeding): therapeutic feeding for severely malnourished children: combating Vitamin-A or other specific deficiences

3 For casualty treatment in first few days only

4 Only if ground-water flows changed.

5 if wells or usual surface sources contaminated or inaccessible.

6 Depending on the type of construction.

7 Only in cases of destructive “flash” floods (in valleys).

8 “Food emergencies” without displacement.

Volcanic eruptions: Possible needs (and secondary effects)are similar to those for earthquakes within the area directly affected by the eruption There may be population displacements.

Tsunamis (tidal waves caused by earthquakes): Possible needs are similar to those of tropical storms plus floods, with the added complication of contamination of wells and agricultural land by salt water.

Epidemics Needs usually include specific drugs, transport, surveillance, improvement of water supplies, personal hygiene and sanitation. Reinforcement of health service management may also been required

Source from: UNICEF, Assisting in Emergencies, United Nations Children’s Fund, 1986.