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close this bookHow Children Learn (IAE - IBE - UNESCO, 32 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe International Academy of Education
View the documentPreface
View the documentIntroduction
View the document1. Active involvement
View the document2. Social participation
View the document3. Meaningful activities
View the document4. Relating new information to prior knowledge
View the document5. Being strategic
View the document6. Engaging in self-regulation and being reflective
View the document7. Restructuring prior knowledge
View the document8. Aiming towards understanding rather than memorization
View the document9. Helping students learn to transfer
View the document10. Taking time to practice
View the document11. Developmental and individual differences
View the document12. Creating motivated learners
View the documentReferences and further reading
View the documentThe International Bureau of Education - IBE


This booklet is about how children learn. It has been prepared for inclusion in the Educational Practices Series developed by the International Academy of Education and distributed by the International Bureau of Education and the Academy. As part of its mission, the Academy provides timely syntheses of research on educational topics of international importance. This booklet is the seventh in the series on educational practices that generally improve learning.

The author is Stella Vosniadou, who has written many articles and books in the area of cognitive, developmental and educational psychology. She has taught at the University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign and at the University of Athens, and was president of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction. She is currently the director of a graduate programme in cognitive science in the Department of Philosophy and History of Science at the University of Athens.

The officers of the International Academy of Education are aware that this booklet is based on research carried out primarily in economically advanced countries. The booklet, however, focuses on aspects of how children learn that appear to be universal in much formal and informal schooling. The practices presented here are likely to be generally applicable throughout the world. Even so, the principles should be assessed with reference to local conditions, and adapted accordingly. In any educational setting or cultural context, suggestions or guidelines for practice require sensitive and sensible application, and continuing evaluation.

Editor, IAE Educational Practices Series
University of Illinois at Chicago