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close this bookPrivate Sector Development in Low-Income Countries - Development in Practice (WB, 1996, 188 p.)
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Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1-From state to market uneven progress
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 2-Establishing an attractive business environment agile firms, agile institutions
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 3-Reforming public enterprise farther performing and faster
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 4-Building robust financial systems— difficult but pressing
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Definitions and data notes

Definition of low-income countries

For the purpose of this report, all countries eligible for assistance from the International Development Association (IDA) are considered as "low-income." IDA-eligible developing countries are currently defined as those countries with a per capita income of $835 or less in 1993 dollars, although in IDA 10 a small group of island economies in the Caribbean (St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines) and the Pacific (Tonga, Vanuatu, and Western Samoa) with per capita incomes above that level were made eligible for IDA resources to support projects that improve their creditworthiness.

The majority of IDA borrowers fall into the category of "low-income," defined as countries with per capita income of $695 or less. The remainder fall into the category of "lower middle-income," defined as countries with per capita incomes between $696 and $1,345.

Geographic and economic groups

The regional distribution of the 78 IDA-eligible countries is as follows: 41 in Sub-Saharan Africa; 11 in East Asia and the Pacific; 8 in South Asia; 9 in Latin America and the Caribbean; 7 in Eastern Europe and Central Asia; and 2 in Middle East and North Africa. The countries in each region are as follows:

Sub-Saharan Africa. Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cape Verde, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Cd'lvoire, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali. Mauritania. Mozambique. Niger. Nigeria. Rwanda. Sao Tome and

Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

The report refers to one subcategory of Sub-Saharan Africa—the CFA franc group, which comprises Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Cd'lvoire, Equatorial Guinea, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Togo.

East Asia and the Pacific. Cambodia, China, Kiribati, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Mongolia, Myanmar, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Vanuatu, Viet Nam, and Western Samoa.

South Asia. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.

Latin America and the Caribbean. Bolivia, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent.

Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, FYR Macedonia, Georgia, Kyrgyz Republic, and Tajikistan.

Middle East and North Africa. Egypt and Yemen.

Analytical groups

For analytical and statistical purposes, the report desegregates Sub-Saharan Africa into two groups of low-income countries: "reforming economies," which have pursued macroeconomic reform programs, including exchange rate reforms; and "other economies," which have pursued more limited programs. The classification generally follows that used in Adjustment in Africa: Reforms, Results, and the Road Ahead (World Bank 1994). The reforming economies are Burundi, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.