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close this bookThe News Media and Humanitarian Action - 1st Edition (DHA/UNDRO - DMTP - UNDP, 1997, 122 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
View the documentINTRODUCTION
View the documentACRONYMS
Open this folder and view contentsPart 1. Complex emergencies, humanitarian action and the crisis triangle
Open this folder and view contentsPart 2. Analysis of media influence and recommendations for crisis triangle institutions
Open this folder and view contentsPart 3. Media relations
View the documentBIBLIOGRAPHY
View the documentNOTES
View the documentGLOSSARY
View the documentDisaster Management Training Programme

NOTES

1. For an example of the tensions and convergence between human rights and environmental action, see Aaron Sachs, Eco-Justice: Linking Human Rights and the Environment (Washington, D.C.: Worldwatch Institute, 1995). For an extended discussion of tensions between human rights and peacekeeping operations, see Human Rights Watch, The Lost Agenda: Human Rights and U.N. Field Operations (New York: Human Rights Watch, 1993).

2. As quoted by his spokesperson Sylvana Foa.

3. For a recent summary see David Hesmondhalgh, “Media Coverage of Humanitarian Emergencies: A Literature Survey,” unpublished paper (Department of Media and Communications, Goldsmiths College, London, October 1993). See also Jonathan Benthall, Disasters, Relief and the Media (London: Tauris, 1993); Robert I. Rotberg and Thomas G. Weiss (eds.). From Massacres to Genocide: The Media, Public Policy, and Humanitarian Crises (Washington: The Brookings Institution and World Peace Foundation, 1996); Edward Girardet (ed.), Somalia, Rwanda, and Beyond: The Role of International Media in Wars and Humanitarian Crises (Geneva: Crosslines Global Report, 1995); and Steven Livingston (ed.), Humanitarian Crises: Meeting the Challenges (Chicago: Robert R. McCormick Tribune Foundation, 1995).

4. See Benthall, Disasters, in particular his description of the “Band Aid phenomenon” in 1984,84-65.

5. Michael Binyon, “Media Tunnel Vision Is Attacked by Hurd,” London Times, September 10,1993,13.

6. Comment by U.S. President Bill Clinton on “A Global Forum,” a CNN special broadcast, May 3,1994.

7. As quoted by his spokesperson Sylvana Foa.

8. Taken from John W. Kingdon, Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies (New York: Harper/Collins, 1984), 4-5, and Martin Upsky, Impact: How the Press Affects Federal Policymaking (New York: Norton, 1986), 137.

9. Kingdon, Agendas, 4

10. For an elaboration of this typology, see Larry Minear and Thomas G. Weiss, Humanitarian Politics (New York: Foreign Policy Association, 1995), 32-37.

11. See, for example, Mark Duffield, “Political Action or Humanitarian Action?” in Rwanda’s Disaster Dilemmas Explored (Geneva: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, December 1994). See also, Rakiya Omaar and Alex de Waal, Humanitarianism Unbound? Discussion Paper No. 5 (London: Africa Rights, 1994).

12. For the most current report, James H. Michel, Development Co-operation: Efforts and Policies of the Members of the Development Assistance Committee (Paris: OECD, 1994).

13. See J. Brian Atwood, “Suddenly Chaos,” Washington Post, July 31,1994, C9.

14. Commission on Global Governance, Our Global Neighbourhood (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 31.

15. See Michel, Development Co-operation., 2.

16. Remarks by Secretary of Defense William J. Perry to the Fortune 500 Forum, Philadelphia, PA, November 3,1994.

17. Steering Committee of the Joint Evaluation of Emergency Assistance to Rwanda, The International Response to Conflict and Genocide: Lessons from the Rwanda Experience (Copenhagen: Steering Committee, 1996), 5, Synthesis Report, 70.

18. Michel, Development Co-operation, 2.

19. Judith Randel and Tony German (eds.), The Reality of Aid 1995 (London: Earthscan Publications, 1995), 73. In The Reality of Aid series, published each year by a consortium of NGOs with country reports and an analysis of overall aid trends, tends to treat humanitarian issues in ways more tough-minded, critical, and hard-hitting than its DAC counterpart.

20. See Thomas G. Weiss and Leon Gordenher (eds.), NGOs, the UN, and Global Governance (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1996).

21. For an elaboration of these issues, see Larry Minear and Philippe Guillot, Soldiers to the Rescue: Humanitarian Lessons from Rwanda (Paris: OECD, 1996). The volume reviews the activities of international military forces in Rwanda in the context of the growing role of the military around the world in the humanitarian sphere.

22. For a more extended treatment, see Minear and Thomas G. Weiss, Mercy Under Fire: War and the Global Humanitarian Community (Boulder: Westview, 1995), 179-195.

23. See The Future of Aid,” Relief and Rehabilitation Network Newsletter No. 3 (London: Overseas Development Institute, April 1995), 4-6.

24. For a working definition of coordination, see Larry Minear, et al., United Nations Coordination of the International Humanitarian Response to the Gulf Crisis 1990-1992 Occasional Paper No. 13 (Providence: Watson Institute, 1992), 3.

25. See Under the Volcanoes: A World Disasters Report Special Focus on the Rwandan Refugee Crisis (Geneva: IFRC, 1994).

26. For a review of various coordination arrangements and their results, see Antonio Donini, The Policies of Mercy: Coordination in Afghanistan, Mozambique, and Rwanda Occasional Paper No. 22 (Providence: Watson Institute, 1996).

27. Randel and German, The Reality, 9.

28. This point is made in an essay by Edward Girardet, “Public Opinion, the Media, and Humanitarianism,” in Thomas G. Weiss and Larry Minear (eds.), Humanitarianism Across Borders: Sustaining Civilians in Times of War (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1993), 39-55.

29. For example, “Impact of Television on U.S. Foreign Policy,” Hearing Before the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, April 26,1994 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 1994). See also Nik Gowing, Real-time Television Coverage of Armed Conflicts and Diplomatic Crises: Does It Pressure or Distort Foreign Policy Decisions? Press, Politics, and Public Policy Working Papers 94-1 (Cambridge: Harvard University, 1994).

30. Carole Zimmerman, “Shifting Focus: The Role of the Media,” in Hunger 1996: Countries in Crisis, Sixth Annual Report on the State of World Hunger (Silver Spring, MD: Bread for the World Institute, 1995), 54. This chapter (pp. 53-58) is a thoughtful review of the constraints on the media as an agent of education and change in the humanitarian sphere.

31. For a useful account of the diverse forces operating in a broadcast news operation, see R. Wallis and S. Baran, The Known World of Broadcast News: International News and the Electronic Media (London: Routledge, 1990). The “gatekeeper” notion is used by Steven Livingston, “Suffering in Silence: Media Coverage of War and Famine in the Sudan,” in Rotberg and Weiss (eds.), From Massacres, 68-89.

32. Herbert J. Gans, Deciding What’s News (New York: Vintage, 1979).

33. Gans, Deciding What’s News, 149,37.

34. Summarized by Hesmondhalgh, Media Coverage.

35. On one occasion following the Ethiopian famine in the mid-1980s, a delegation of Ethiopians during a visit to Washington to evaluate international response sharply criticized the media, humanitarian organizations, and congressional and administration officials who, they felt, had deprived them of their humanity in their effort to hasten a U.S. response to the crisis.

36. Interview with a U.S. TV network news reporter, December 1,1994.

37. For more detail, see Thomas Pakenham, The Scramble for Africa (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1991), 336-338.

38. For an exposition of both models see Steve Livingston and Todd Eachus, “Humanitarian Crises and U.S. Foreign Policy: Somalia and the CNN Effect Reconsidered,” Political Communication 12, no. 4 (1995): 413-429.

39. Growing, Real-time Television, 3-5.

40. Summarizing a wide-ranging discussion, the formulation of these phases was made by Staffan de Mistura, Director of UNICEF’s Division of Public Affairs.

41. Lipsky, Impact. 224.

42. Ted Koppel, in “Impact of Television on U.S. Foreign Policy,” Congressional hearing, 5. This same line of argument is developed by Natsios, “Illusions of Influence,” in Rotberg and Weiss (eds.), From Massacres, 149-168. For an account of the degree to which the Clinton administration generally accommodates the media in policymaking, see Bob Woodward, The Agenda (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994), and Lexington, “The Vote Processor,” Economist 332, no. 7876 (August 13, 1994): 30.

43. See John E. Rielly (ed.), American Public Opinion and U.S. Foreign Policy 1995 (Chicago: Chicago Council on Foreign Relations, 1995), 31.

44. Mark Duffield, “Complex Emergencies and the Crisis of Developmentalism,” IDS Bulletin: Unking Relief and Development 25,, no. 4 (October 1994): 37-45.

45. Quoted in William Shawcross, “Around the World in Eighty Briefings,” Spectator 273. no. 8661 (July 9,1994): 9.

46. See, e.g., Gordon Adam, “Radio’s Peacekeeping Potential in Humanitarian Crises,” in Girardet (ed.), Somalia. Rwanda, and Beyond, 179-190.

47. Raymond Bonner, Trying to Document Rights Abuses,” New York Times, July 26, 1995. A10.

48. For a summary of international response to the Liberia crisis, see Colin Scott. Larry Minear, and Thomas G. Weiss, Humanitarian Action and Security in Liberia 1989-1994 Occasional Paper No. 21 (Providence: Watson Institute, 1995).

49. UN Consolidated Appeal for Liberia, January 1995, unnumbered DHA document.

50. For an example, see Jeffrey Goldberg, “A War without a Purpose in a Country without Identity,” New York Times Magazine. January 22,1995, 36-39.

51. For a graphic account of the importance of external news media to those involved in the conflict, see Lynda Schuster, “The Final Days of Dr. Doe.” Grants 48 (Summer 1994): 39-95.

52. Sir Anthony Parsons, “Conclusions and Recommendations,” in Nigel Rodley (ed.). To Loose the Bands of Wickedness (London: Brasey’s, 1992), 219.

53. See Steven Livingston, “Suffering in Silence: Media Coverage of War and Suffering in the Sudan,” in Robert I. Rotberg and Thomas G. Weiss (eds.), The Media.

54. John Prendergast, Center of Concern, interview March 9,1995.

55. For example, see Karen Hoofer with Don Redding, Children of Forgotten Emergencies, a campaign booklet for Save the Children-UK (London, 1995).

56. Francois Jean (ed.), Populations in Danger (London: Libbey, 1992), 65-66.

57. Quoted in Michael R. Beschloss, prepared statement in “Impact of Television on U.S. Foreign Policy,” hearing before the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, 103rd Congress, April 26,1994, 50. See also Gowing. Real-time Television Coverage, 38.

58. Gannett Foundation Media Center, The Media at War The Press and the Persian Gulf Conflict (New York: Gannett Center, 1991), xi.

59. For the wider political context see James Mayall, “Non-intervention, Self-determination, and the New World Order,” International Affairs no. 67 (July 1991): 421-429.

60. Remarks by General Shalikashvili, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, to the Robert R. McCormnick Tribune Foundation, in Livingston (ed.), Humanitarian Crises, 57.

61 Lee E. Hamilton in “Impact of Television on U.S. Foreign Policy,” Congressional hearing,1.

62. For a detailed tracking of media coverage and policy decisions, see Livingston and Eachus, “Humanitarian Crises,” 413-429.

63. John Prendergast, Center of Concern, interview March 9,1995.

64. See Jean (ed.), Populations in Danger, 45-49.

65. Mort Rosenblum, “Lack of Information or Lack of Will?” in Edward R. Girardet (ed.), Somalia, Rwanda and Beyond: The Role of the International Media in Wars and Humanitarian Crises (Geneva: Crosslines Global Report, 1995), 79.

66. Interview with former USAID official, December 1994.

67. Rosenblum, “Lack of Information,” 79.

68. See Debarati G. Sapir and Hedwig Deconinck, The Paradox of Humanitarian Assistance and Military Intervention in Somalia,” in Thomas G. Weiss (ed.), The United Nations and Civil Wars (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1995), 151-172.

69. Thomas Keenan, Back to the Front: Tourisms of War (Paris: Basse-Normandie, 1194), 143.

70. See Andrew Natsios, “Illusions of Influence: The CNN Effect in Complex Emergencies?” in Rotberg and Weiss (eds.). From Massacres, 149-168.

71. Lawrence Eagleburger on “Reliable Sources, How Television Shapes Diplomacy,” CNN, October 16, 1994.

72. See Warren A. Strobe), Push Me, Pull You: The News Media, Peace Operations, and US Foreign Policy (Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace, forthcoming), chapter 4.

73. Donatella Lorch, “Lights, Camera,... Land Em,” International Herald-Tribune, December 10,1992, 2.

74. Mark Huband, “War Games,” Guardian, January 9,1993,15 (Supplement Section).

75. Rick Lyman, “Occupational Hazards,” in Qirardet (ed.), Somalia, Rwanda and Beyond, 115-128.

76. Quoted in Gowing, Real-Time Television, 67. Gowing concludes, the “pictures struck a raw nerve at a time when the administration was uncertain as to whether U.S. troops were still making a valuable contribution to the UN aid mission.”

77. Ibid., 27.

78. Frank J. Stech, “Winning CNN Wars,” Parameters (Autumn 1994): 43.

79. Rosenblum, “Lack of Information,” 82.

80. See Thomas G. Weiss, “Collective Spinelessness: U.N. Actions in the Former Yugoslavia.” in Richard E. Ullman (ed.), The World and Yugoslavia’s Ware (New York: Council on Foreign Relations, forthcoming).

81. For a summary of media effect on Bosnia policy, see Warren P. Strobel, “Television Images May Shock but Won’t Alter Policy,” Christian Science Monitor, December 14, 1994,19.

82. Michael Binyon, “Media Tunnel Vision Is Attacked by Hurd,” London Times, September 10, 1993, 13.

83. For example, The Independent newspaper (UK) throughout 1993.

84. Quoted in Gowing, Real-time Television, 72. 65. Quoted in New York Times, July 28,1995, A4.

86. Major General Lewis MacKenzie, “Military Realities of UN Peacekeeping Operations,” RUSI Journal 138, no. 1 (February 1993): 23.

87. For a discussion of indigenous media roles, see Article 19, International Centre Against Censorship, Forging War: The Media In Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina (Avon: Bath Press, 1994).

88. The observation was made in an interview with the authors by lain Guest, Fellow at the Refugee Policy Group, Washington D.C. This and other insights on the Haiti crisis were drawn from discussions with Guest and with William G. O’Neill, a consultant to the National Coalition for Haitian Rights.

89. For a summary of the cases for and against U.S. invasion of Haiti, see Robert I. Rotberg, “Give Haiti’s Cedras a Deadline for Leaving, Then Act on It,” Christian Science Monitor, September 12,1994,18.

90. Steven Kull and Clay Ramsay, U.S. Public Attitudes on U.S. Involvement in Haiti,” Program on International Policy Attitudes, University of Maryland, August 22,1994.

91. Lawrence A. Pezzullo, “Our Haiti Fiasco,” Washington Post, May 5,1994, A23.

92. Remarks by General Shalikashvili, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, to the Robert R. McCormick Tribune Foundation, in Livingston (ed.), Humanitarian Crises, 5.

93. For a more extended review, see Robert Maguire (team leader), et al., Haiti Held Hostage: The Quest for Nationhood, 1986-1996 Occasional Paper No. 23 (Providence: Watson Institute, 1996).

94. For an account of media coverage of Burundi-Rwanda 1993-1994, see James MacGuire, “Rwanda before the Massacre,” Forties Media Critic 2, no. 1 (Fall 1994): 39.

95. Steering Committee, International Response, 2, “Early Warning and Conflict Management,” 46.

96. Ibid.. “Study 3: Humanitarian Aid and Effects,” 150.

97. Thanks to Michael Lally, RTE for this and other insights on the Rwanda crisis.

98. Thomas W. Lippman, “U.S. Troops Withdrawal Ends Frustrating Mission to Save Rwandan Lives,” Washington Post, October 3,1994, A11.

99. For a more extended discussion of the positive and negative aspects of Operation Turquoise and its putative humanitarian aspects, see Larry Minear and Philippe Guillot, Soldiers to the Rescue. Humanitarian Lessons from Rwanda (Paris: OECD, 1996), especially chapter five. The observation about the power of the French presidency was made by Philippe Guillot in an interview with the authors of this book in October 1995.

100. See Steering Committee, International Response, 3,72.

101. For an account of how an experienced regional journalist struggled to understand the ethnic power politics, see Lindsey Hilsum, “Where is Kigali?” Granta no. 51 (Autumn 1995): 145-179. Hilsum was reportedly only one of two international journalists in Kigali in early April.

102. The term “media circus” is used in one of the early and more hard-hitting reviews of NGO activities in the crisis, “Rwanda’s Disaster Dilemmas Explored,” World Disasters Report (Geneva: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 1995), 13-17.

103. Catherine Toups, “Mitehell Heads New Unit for Averting World Crises,” Washington Times, November 17,1995, 16.

104. John Shattuck, “Human Rights and Humanitarian Crises: Policy-Making and the Media,” in Rotberg and Weiss (eds.). From Massacres, 175.

105. Lipsky, Impact, 217.

106. A number of NGOs, including the Mennonite Central Committee, already have development strategies and train their headquarters and overseas staff accordingly.

107. John C. Hammock and Joel R. Charny, “Emergency Responses as Morality Play: The Media, the Relief Agencies, and the Need for Capacity Building,” in Rotberg and Weiss (eds.), From Massacres, 115-135.

108. See Winter, “Communication,” 18-19.

109. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, World Disasters Report 1994. (Geneva: IFRC, 1994), 26-32.

110. Minear et al.. United Nations Coordination, 35.

111. On “A Global Forum with President Clinton,” CNN, May 3, 1994.

112. For a discussion, see “Part One: Capitalizing on Technology and Sustaining Media Attention,” in Rotberg and Weiss (eds.), From Massacres, 14-89.

113. For a comprehensive assessment of future trends, see W. Russell Neuman, The Future of the Mass Audience (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).

114. Nicholas Negroponte, Being Digital (New York: Knopf, 1995), 57.

115. Paul Fahri, “Disney Co. and CapCities/ABC Agree to a $19 Billion Merger,” Washington Post, August 1,1995, A16.

116. Edward Girardet (ed.), “Record Number of Journalists Killed in 1994,” Crosslines Global Report, March 1995, 43-46.

117. Taken from workshop discussions in preparation of the original book.

118. Scott, Colin. 1997. The Humanitarian Response to War: Who are the Drivers -Policymakers, Aid Agencies or the Media?” Intermedia volume 25, number 1, pp. 8-10.