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close this bookGATE - 2/96 - Renewable Energy and Solar Energy Use (GTZ GATE, 1996, 52 p.)
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Energy notes

- Renewable Energies in the INTERNET
- Forces of change
- Resource conservation and energy saving
- Solar drier: Turkish-German cooperation

Renewable Energies in the INTERNET
The Internet Information Service of the Centre for Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technology.
Information provided by the US Department of Energy on renewable energies and energy efficient technologies.
A comprehensive guide of power generation, transmission, distribution and end-use.
List of associations, companies and universities in the renewable energy field.
Mr. Solar-Home-Page, a self-produced guide to alternative energy infos. Very nice web site.
Renewables for Sustainable Village Power (RSVP) by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREC). The goal of this activity is to facilitate the information transfer necessary for sustainable power projects. Very useful information.
Provides information on construction plans, documents, images and addresses dealing with solar cookers.

Forces of change

"From some perspectives, the mid-1990s are a dark time for the world energy system. Oil consumption is approaching the record levels of the late 1970s, with demand in some countries growing at rates as high as 10 percent per year. Even the use of coal is still expanding in many nations, pushing emissions of carbon dioxide, the leading greenhouse gas, to more than 6 billion tons per year. Emissions are growing particularly rapidly in China and India, but even the United States and Canada are failing to hold carbon dioxide emissions steady as they are supposed to under the Rio climate convention.

Although most energy analysts view such trends as convincing evidence that the world energy system won't change anytime soon, the reverse may be true. As Stephen Jay Gould's theory suggests, evolutionary bursts are usually precipitated by strong pressures. Today, three major forces of change are bearing down on the world energy economy -new technologies, industry restructuring, and tougher environmental policies -all of which are likely to be intensified by incipient climate change."

Source: World Watch, January/February 1996

Resource conservation and energy saving

Foundry in greater Santiago: Many of the small and medium-sized industries which exceed the legal particle emission limits of 112 milligrams per m3 in greater Santiago are threatened with closure. Thanks to improved technical advisory services through cooperation between existing organizations, consultancy institutions and financing institutions, that one foundry works was able to reduce its emissions from 3000 down to 76 milligram/m3, far below the legally tolerated level.

Contact person:

Comision Nacional de Energia
Teatinos 120, piso 7, Casilla 14, Correos 21
Santiago de Chile
Sr. Jaime Parada/S-r. Claudia Fernandez


More than 150 assessments of boilers generating steam and heat brought to light the potentials for energy saving. By installing measuring equipment and introducing periodic plant maintenance an average of 10% energy savings could be achieved. This amounts to annual savings of 700,000 tons of oil or DM 180 million, at 1990 prices (for the Philippines alone).

In a Philippine company manufacturing basic materials for the ceramic industry, the use of exhaust heat from a diesel motor was able to completely substitute wood firing for the dryer. Annual savings: 2000 tons of wood or DM 95,000. The plant conversion costs were amortized in less than a year. Annual emission reduction: 3,800 tons CO2, 17.5 tons CO, 8.7 tons C´nH´m, 7 tons NOx, 1.7 tons dust and 0.8 tons SO2.

Contact address:

Office of Energy Affairs, Conservation Division
Merrit Road, Fort Bonifacio
Makati Metro Manila
Dr. A. Kaupp

Improved recycling is saving resources in the paper industry. In the scope of cooperation with the Argentinean paper industry exemplary advisory services were given to a paper factory on energy and production technology. The interdisciplinary advisory team covered the energy aspects and also the mass flows of other production materials such as fibre and water. With negligible investment costs the drying process and condensate return were modified, a section cylinder for couching and a fibre retention system were installed. In addition to the energy saving effect of 15% electricity and 21% natural gas, water consumption was reduced by 20% and raw fibre losses by 40% and both were returned to the production process. A side effect was the 99,000 tons annual reduction in CO2 emissions.

Contact person:
Lic. Omar Arza Dir. URE
Secretaria de Energia y de Comunicacions
Republica Argentina, Buenos Aires


A technical cooperation project with China is investigating seven million Marks in raising the effectiveness of thermal power stations by improved coal combustion. Two thirds into the project term, c. 100,000 tons of coal are being saved per year at a value of 10 million Marks and carbon dioxide emissions reduced by 250,000 tons per year. The new technology is being applied in other power stations and it is expected that at the end of the project term annual savings will amount to c. 0.1% of the global reduction potential. Not the input but the profit per saved per ton CO2 will then amount to DM 40.

Contact person:

Mr. Xie Chang Jun
Deputy President
Ministry of Electric Power
No 1 Chedaogou Beijing
100081 PR of China

Solar drier: Turkish-German cooperation

The demand for dried fruits on the world market is continually increasing but to remain competitive Turkish farmers must employ new technologies. As part of Turkish-German technical cooperation project new drying techniques have been tested on apricots and figs: products which are well established and commercialised on the world market.

The solar tunnel drier developed at the Institute for Tropical and Sub-tropical Agricultural Technology of the University of Hohenheim was copied using only local materials. The collector and drier are made of self-supporting, heat-insulating wood panels which can be fitted within each other. The collector is lined with 0.35 mm black steel sheets. Laterally attached sheet steel sections serve as stabilisers and mountings for the transparent UV-stabilised polyethylene sheeting. To distribute the air evenly, 3 axial fans are installed, each with an air throughput of 350 m3/h.

The drying section is designed with galvanised 40mm-mesh wire netting, a fine mesh polyester net is spread over the material to be dried. Production costs including setting up a 30 m long installation are currently $ 1700 US. The drying capacity for apricots and figs is c. 1000 kg of fresh fruit.

In the 1995 harvest season in Turkey 30 locally manufactured solar tunnel driers were installed. These produced 80 tonnes of dried figs and 10 tonnes of dried apricots of optimum product quality.