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close this bookAsbestos Overview and Handling Recommendations (GTZ, 1996)
close this folderPart III. Asbestos substitutes
View the document1. Technical requirements for Asbestos substitutes
View the document2 Properties of typical Asbestos fiber substitutes - Overview
Open this folder and view contents3 Fiber substitutes for Asbestos fibers in the building area
Open this folder and view contents4 Fiber-free substitutes in construction area

2 Properties of typical Asbestos fiber substitutes - Overview

From the previous discussions it is apparent that Asbestos can be substituted in most application areas by other fibrous materials. These can be natural or synthetic fibers. Primarily those fiber types listed in Table 17 come under consideration.

Table 17: Fiberous Materials for Asbestos Substitution



Wollastonite


inorganic fibers

Attapulgit

Natural Fibers


Sepiolite



virgin wool


organic fibers

cotton



cellulose



flax and hemps



crystalline fibrous materials:


inorganic fibrous

- steel


materials

- carbon fibers



- SiC-Whisker



- polypotassium titanate



amorphous fibrous materials:



- textile glass fibers

Synthetic


A-glass, C-glass, D-glass,E-glass, R-glass,

fibrous


glass, Z-glass

materials


silicic acid fiber



-non-textile glass fibers (insulating fibers)



glass wool,



mineral wool,



ceramic wool



polyester


organic fibrous

polyaramide


materials

polytetrafluoroethylene



viscose



polypropylene



polyacrylnitale

Source: Schreiber: Asbest-Ersatzstoffe, in: IACS, Page 13.4

Applying the Asbestos property matrix shown in Table 16 to the potential Asbestos substitutes results in the property matrix for the substitutes presented in Table 18.

Table 18: Technical Properties of Asbestos Substitutes

Fibrous Materials

Mechanical
Properties

Chemical
Properties

Specific
friction
Characteristic

Thermal
Stability in
C Degrees

Insulation


Tensile
strength

E-Modulus

Alkaline

Acids


350

550

750

1250
and >

Thermal

Electrical

Inorganic amorphous












Fibrous materials












Textile glass fibers

+

(+)



?


+



+


A-Glass





+







C-Glass












D-Glass












E-Glass











+

R-Glass












Z-Glass




+








silicic acid fibers

+

(+)



(+)



+


+


non-textile glass fibers

(+)

(+)



?





+

+

ceramic wool




+





+



glass wool







+





rock wool and mineral












wool





(+)



+




Inorganic crystalline












fibrous materials












Steel

+

+

(+)


+ ?







Carbon fiber (highly resistant, highly modular)

+

+

+

+

+ ?




(+)



Carbon fibers (Pitch Type)

+

+

+

(+)








Carbon felt










(+)


Potassium titanate










(+)

(+)

Silicium carbide-Whisker

+

+

+









Organic fibrous materials












Polyester

+

+


+






+

+

Polyaramide (Arenka)

+

+

+

+

+

+




+


(Kevlar 49)

+


+

+


+




+


Polytetrafluoroethylen












(Teflon)

+


+

+


+




+

+

Polyacrylnitrile

+


(+)

+






+

+

Ployaramide (Nomex)

+


+



+




+

+

Viscose (Reyon)

+




+





+


Polypropylene

+


+

+






+


Legend + suitable (+) conditionally suitable ? possibly suitable
Source: Schreiber: Asbest-Ersatzstoffe, in: IACS

The main result of this section is that particularly for the quantitatively important applications of Asbestos, namely

· fire protection,
· thermal insulation,
· structural elements, construction products (Asbestos cement products),
· friction products,

substitutes are available which enable the replacement of Asbestos. The respective health risks of the substitutes must be specially investigated.

Table 19: Areas of Application for Fibers and Filling Materials as Asbestos Substitutes, their Price Range and Health Effects


Health
&
Safety

Fire
Proof

Thermal
Insulation

Electrical
Insulation

Gasket

Filtration

Friction
linings

Construction
Prod.

Chemical
prod.

Price
Range 1)

Health
Risk2)

Textile glass fibers

+


+

+

+


+


+

·

+

SiO2- fibers

+

+

+

+

+





- -

+

carbon fibers





+


+


+

- -

+

Non-textile glass












fibers

+


+


+

+

+

+

+

+·

-

Ceramic fibers

+

+

+

+






- -

-

Gypsum fibers



+






+

n.d.


Wollastonite

+


+

+



+

+

+

·

+ -

Attapulgit









+

n.d.

- -

Sepiolite









+

n.d.

-

Polyacrylnitrile






+

+

+

+

n.d.

+

ox. PAN

+


+



+

+


+

n.d.

+

Vinylal/Polyvinylalcoh.








+


n.d.

+

Polypropylene




+

+



+


n.d.

+

Polytetrafluoroethylene




+

+

+



nn.d.

+


Aramide

+

+

+


+


+


+

- -

+

Woo

+

+








+

+

Cotton

+



+





+

+

+

Cellulose-fibers





+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Flax and hemp








(+)


+

+

Mica





+


·


+

+

+

Talk





+




+

+

+

Bentonite







+


+

+

+

Diatomite







+


+

+

+

+ substitutes are available (+) restricted possible uses 1) ++substantially cheaper + cheaper · similar prices - more expensive - - much more expensive n.d. no data 2) (Carcinogenic effects were defined based on the critical diameter range): + not critical - critical -- very critical n.d. no data

Source: Schreiber: Asbest-Ersatzstoffe, in: IACS. Page 13.9 - expanded -

Table 19 shows a summary of the application areas of Asbestos substitutes and information on their carcinogenic effects. In Germany, the recent controversial classification of glass fibers with particular characteristics as carcinogenic, according to the TRGS 905 of May 1995, could potentially influence application areas for glass fibers.

For detailed information, the substance catalogue of UBA and the substitute list of the Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Accident Research (Bundesanstalt fur Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung) are referenced.

The current state on Asbestos substitution is presented in the following table. The product groups can generally be divided into two classes:

· Product groups with complete substitution possibilities;
· Product groups with partial substitution.

Table 20: Possibilities for Asbestos Substitution Product Groups Area of Use

Fibrous/filling material

Inorganic synthetic fibers

Inorganic natural fibers

Organic synthetic fibers

Organic natural fibers

Non
-fibrous filling material
- lamina (flakes)
- particles


Health & Safety

Personal thermal resistant clothing

Thermal resistant glass

Flat textile prints

Materials for specific workplaces



Fire proof

Fire proof boards & surfaces

Spraying compounds, insulating plaster

Plastic masses, paints, cement and filters, fire proof mortar

Cardboard, cords, fleeces inorganic foam(pastic) material fire protection cushion

Textiles
- fire extinguishing blankets
- curtains

Protective clothing for fire fighting

Heating insulation

Boards & surfaces

Inorganic spraying compounds

Material for filling joints and cavities

Formed parts and moulding compounds

Textile products


Electrical insulation

Wire and cable

Insulating materials

moulding compounds

Household appliances



Gaskets

Static
- flat gaskets

Dynamic packaging

Cylinder
- head gasket

Heating gas gasket

Compensators


Filtration

Liquid filtration fine and sterile filter media, fil- tering aid media

Gas filtration/ ventilation process air dust collection

Respiratory filter for respirator

Diaphragms, separators



Friction Lining

Disk brake lining

Drum brake lining

Brake soles

Brake lining for industrial use

Clutch lining


Construction elements (Asbestos cement)

Small formatted flat boards

Small formatted corrugated board

Pipes for underground construction
- pressure pipe
- sewer pipe

Pipes for household and property drainage
- ventilation
- waste gas

Landscaping


Chemical products and others

Paint materials and filler

Adhesive materials, gasket compounds, cement

Special products with asphalt or tar matrix

Moulding compounds with plastic-matrix(duro plastic)

Moulding compounds with synthetic material(thermoplastic)


Note: Since Asbestos substitutes (other substitute products) are now available, the use of Asbestos products is therefore no longer necessary.

Source: Schreiber: Asbest-Ersatzstoffe, in: LACS, Page 13.14