|Asbestos Overview and Handling Recommendations (GTZ, 1996)|
|Part V Development of handling recommendations|
A catalogue of recommendations for the handling and management of the Asbestos problem by donor organizations cannot be built upon the experiences of others, but rather it must be derived on the basis of the necessities in handling Asbestos containing substances.
A general recommendation is:
Avoidance of use of Asbestos containing products, in particular of amphibole Asbestos friable Asbestos materials
This general principle can be further specified through criteria:
It is recommended to generally forbid the mining and further processing of the particularly hazardous Asbestos types, namely crocidolite and amosite. In some cases, however, economic restrictions can be derived from this policy for specific countries (e.g. for southern Africa, the most important mining region for crocidolite and amosite). Furthermore, only non-friable Asbestos products should be allowed to be produced.
For each application area, specific substitution possibilities should be examined, and the use of Asbestos and Asbestos containing products should only appear justifiable in cases in which a suitable substitution is not feasible (insufficient technical properties, lack of availability, uneconomic use of substitutes, etc.), and in which the resulting health hazards can be calculated. This must be determined on a single case basis using estimations of the hazards. However, general recommendations can be given, such as: Asbestos containing materials should not be used in clinics, schools and kindergartens; mechanical wear or subsequent machining of the surfaces of Asbestos containing products should be avoided. Further limitations for application are presented below.
Since it is typically to be assumed that in DC Asbestos containing materials will be or have been processed, the next recommendation is to minimize the health hazards associated with contact of Asbestos containing products. Included here are e.g. measures to reduce fiber release, as described in detail in Part 11, Chapter 5, and personal occupational protection equipment. The attainment of the limit for Asbestos fiber concentrations of < 2 fibers/ml must be required. A correct labelling of Asbestos containing materials with "a" should be prescribed worldwide.
There is a worldwide consensus concerning the grave hazard resulting from inhalative intake of Asbestos fibers over a long period.
The health hazards from exposure to Asbestos fibers must be monitored. The affected groups of people must be informed about the dangers, and regular medical exams should be performed. Eating and smoking should generally be forbidden at the workplace.
In the following section more elements are presented for risk
minimization or handling alternatives through restrictions in the implementation
of the basic principle. The individual steps of the life cycle of Asbestos
containing products are considered, and limitations for application are
presented as well as recommendations in case of use.
Figure 7: Catalogue on Recommendations for Dealing with Asbestos (overview)
Figure 7.1: Illustration of the 3 Basic Principles
Recommended Handling for the Use of Asbestos
Containing Materials end products
Control of the use of Asbestos containing products in regard
· state (e.g. condition of surface) and
· resulting emission response / fiber releases
(for control: training / education required)
1) All Asbestos containing materials to be used must be labelled and the possible health risks pointed out.
2) During the installation of Asbestos containing materials it must be ensured that no subsequent mechanical processing on site will be necessary.
Application Recommendations / Application Limitations:
The use of Asbestos containing materials could result in health effects and is therefore not recommended. Based on the particular situation of the developing countries (availability of minerals, material properties of Asbestos, limited financial resources, etc.), an evaluation could justify the use of Asbestos containing materials in some limited cases.
Examples of controlled risks are:
1) Pre-fabricated and pre-drilled nonfriable erosion resistant Asbestos cement products for building exteriors (facades, roofs) (depending on climate conditions);
2) Asbestos cement products for drinking water mains / wastewater sewers;
3) Pre-fabricated and pre-drilled nonfriable Asbestos cement products for interior coverings (surface sealing and supervision of the fiber concentration needed, use in schools, kindergartens and clinics is problematic);
4) Asbestos textiles for selected uses and not for long-term application (in particular for fire protection & fire fighting) necessary to control health risks;
5) Asbestos fiber containing sealed floor coverings (not in clinics, schools, and kindergartens);
6) Pre-fabricated and pre-drilled nonfriable covering for insulating purposes (particulary in schools, kindergartens, etc., further surface sealing are necessary), e.g. heat insulation boards;
7) Asbestos containing products within closed insulated
components (e.g. disk brake lining and clutches); (special danger for
Recommended Handling for Containment and Abatement of Asbestos
General Basis Principle:
Asbestos removal and securement measures are only to be carried out by qualified personnel following the available measures for guaranteeing a minimal Asbestos release.
Implementation of the Necessary Measures for Asbestos Abatement
Changes and repairs are to be carried out with the best possible locally available dismantling & removal techniques based on the following recommended guidelines:
1) With large Asbestos abatement projects no other measures are allowed to be carried out in the area;
2) During abatement, detected loosely bound fiber materials are to be handled like Asbestos containing material, until a corresponding analysis disproves that assumption;
3) The planning and execution of the work is to be contracted to licensed and qualified firms;
4) Various securement and abatement techniques could be applied for nonfriable Asbestos containing materials (see Part II, Chapter. 6);
-a- separation / enclosure of the contaminated zone;
-b- encapsulate, as far as technically possible;
-c- removal of the Asbestos containing materials, provided -a- and/or -b- are inadequate;
5) Also smaller projects of Asbestos removal should only be tackled, when it is guaranteed, that no release of Asbestos fibers in other areas will result;
6) Keeping the surface area moist for the minimization of the release of Asbestos fibers;
7) Protective clothing and respiratory protection with special filters are required;
8) General smoking and eating prohibition in the securement and abatement zone;
9) Disposal of the Asbestos containing materials following relevant guidelines.
Recommended Handling for the Disposal of Asbestos and Asbestos Containing Materials
General Basic Principle:
Asbestos and Asbestos containing materials and products are only to be deposited at licensed landfills.
Recommended Minimal Disposal Guidelines for Asbestos Containing Dismantled Products and Waste Products
In general, for the disposal of Asbestos the emissions of dust and fibers should approach zero. Special attention should be given to the fact that transportation containers (such as sacks, etc.) can be damaged through rips.
Further minimal requirements should comprise the following:
1) Wastes or dismantled products should always be transported in appropriate containers;
2) The containers should be properly sealed to minimize the dust and fiber emissions arising while being handled;
3) Preferably, the containers should be disposed of at the base of a landfill, in holes or trenches;
4) In the course of disposal, Asbestos containing wastes (nonfriable Asbestos) should not be broken down or pressed;
5) At the end of each workday at the landfill, Asbestos containing wastes should never be left uncovered, and the minimal cover should be 2 meters.
(Detailed explanations to these points are found in Part 11, Chapter 6.2)