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close this bookCommunity Participation in the Execution of Squatter Settlements Upgrading Projects - Training Module (HABITAT, 1985, 52 p.)
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View the documentCOURSE PAPER
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The guidelines (blue), for the instructor only, explain the use of the course module in the training session. They list the material required, outline the timing and organization of the session, and explain how the instructor has to prepare the training.

This course module has been prepared as a general module for a training course on community participation in the execution of squatter-settlement upgrading projects. The module provides a framework for the training course, but it is the responsibility of the instructor to provide additional and detailed information and to adjust the course to local conditions.

Target group

Project staff (project managers and staff involved in community participation).

Number of participants

10 - 20 persons.


Two or three days.


Easy access to a squatter settlement or a squatter-settlement upgrading project is desirable.


Blackboard or newsprint and, if possible, a film projector or video equipment.

Relevant films

“De mains et d'espoirs” (Senegal) and “Little by Little” (Philippines); both are available through UNCHS (Habitat).


The scope for community participation in the execution of squatter-settlement upgrading projects differs from project to project depending on the policy decisions made during the formulation of the project. In order to link the training to the situation in which the trainees are or will be working, the instructor has to prepare a background paper before the start of the training session. The paper should provide data on planned and ongoing squatter-settlement upgrading projects and list the principles for their execution. It should document local experiences with community participation and squatter-settlement upgrading projects, if any.

A day before the session starts, the instructor distributes the course paper and the background paper and any other relevant material to the trainees, so that they have the opportunity to read them.

Training session (half a day)

The instructor and the trainees together read through the course paper and discuss the opportunities and limitations of community participation in the execution of squatter-settlement upgrading projects. At the end of each chapter of the course paper, a number of questions related to the Issues raised in the chapters have been listed. These questions can be utilized during the session to review the chapter and discuss its relevance for the working situation of the trainee.

However, the questions have been formulated in such a way that they can serve as “field-work assignments” for the trainees. By answering the questions concerning the squatter-settlement upgrading schemes in which the trainees are or will be working, the training session can produce a policy on community participation in squatter-settlement upgrading as well as procedures and documents related to community participation in project execution.

Field-work assignments (one or two days)

For this purpose, the participants have to be divided into groups of three to five persons at the end of the half-day training session. Each group is assigned the task of preparing answers to a number of questions raised in the course paper.

Depending on the number of participants, groups can be formed around such topics as:

Community organization;
Communication and information;
Community financing;
Procedure for community participation.

The groups of participants can collect information on these issues by interviewing government officials, visiting squatter settlements and reviewing literature on squatter-settlement upgrading projects in other towns or countries. The instructor can also invite resource-persons from relevant government institutions and other organizations to assist the group. To some questions there is no immediate answer, and the participants will have to generate their own ideas.

Review session (max. one day)

Each group has to present the results of its field-work at a plenary session, so that the relevance, feasibility and consistency of the work can be examined by all participants, the instructor and, if possible, some government officials.


The trainees and the instructor evaluate the training session.