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close this bookEthnoveterinary Medicine in Asia - Poultry (IIRR, 1994, 40 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentCollaborating organizations
View the documentParticipants and workshop staff
View the documentHow to use this manual
View the documentReduced appetite
View the documentCoughs and colds
View the documentDiarrhea
View the documentIntestinal worms
View the documentTicks, lice and mites
View the documentFungal diseases
View the documentInfectious diseases
View the documentWounds
View the documentHousing
View the documentHeat stress
View the documentFeeding
View the documentCalcium deficiency

Infectious diseases

Fowl cholera

Symptoms

· Rapid breathing.
· Mucous discharge from the mouth.
· Fever.
· Birds are inactive and do not eat.
· Diarrhea.
· Sudden death.

Spread by contact with infected birds.

Prevention

· Proper hygiene and sanitation.
· Vaccination.

Treatment See Reduced appetite, Coughs and colds and Diarrhea. These treatments help relieve the symptoms only.

Fowlpox

Symptoms

· Blisters or boils which later form thick scabs.
· Blisters inside the mouth, nose and eyelids.
· Discharge from the nose.
· Watery or closed eyes.

Fowlpox is a slow-spreading viral disease of poultry. It kills few birds but reduces their resistance to other diseases, such as pneumonia and diarrhea. The disease is spread by insect bites and by direct contact with sores on affected birds.

Prevention

· Maintain hygiene and sanitation.

· Avoid stress.

· Control mosquitoes by removing stagnant water, pouring kerosene or oil on stagnant water, or hanging a bouquet of Ocimum sanctum leaves inside the poultry house. See Ticks, lice and mites, page 13.

Treatment

These treatments help relieve the symptoms only.

· Pound black pepper (Piper nigrum) seeds and force-feed the birds twice a day for 3 days. The seeds can also be used whole. Use 1 seed for chicks and 2-3 seeds for mature birds.

· Apply ground black pepper on the blisters.

· Grind dry seeds of mature chili pepper (Capsicum annum). Force-feed 5-10 seeds per day for 3 days for adult birds and 2-3 seeds for young birds.

· Grind a handful of leaves of Abrus precatorius with a handful of limestone (red lime). Apply on the affected part once a day for 3 days. (Thailand)

Infectious coryza

Symptoms

· Nasal discharge.
· Sneezing.
· Swelling of face under the eyes.

Chickens become susceptible to coryza at 4 weeks age. The susceptibility increases with age. The disease lasts two weeks. It is spread by contact with infected birds.

Treatment See Coughs and colds.

Newcastle disease

Newcastle disease (called "ranikhet" in India) is a serious problem in poultry. It can kill large numbers of birds. It spreads rapidly through the flocks in a village. It occurs mainly during changes in the weather (in Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines and Cambodia) and in April and October (in parts of India).

Symptoms

· Diarrhea watery and green, with foul odor.
· Discharge from the nose.
· Coughing and sneezing.
· Swelling of the head.
· Head and neck twisted to one side.
· Drooping wings, dragging legs.
· Sleepiness.
· Full, distended crop.
· Convulsions and paralysis.
· Death.

Prevention

· Vaccinate birds when they are one-day old. Give a second vaccination at 8 weeks of age or before the start of the rainy season. A vaccine is now available that can be added to the feed.

· Deworm the birds regularly. (Thailand. 1, 2)

· Farmers in Thailand mix the juice of Andrographis paniculata with rice and feed this to the birds to prevent Newcastle disease. (Thailand. 2)

Treatment

See Diarrhea and Coughs and colds.
These treatments help relieve the symptoms only.

Salmonellosis

Symptoms

· Birds huddle together near the source of heat.
· Birds do not eat.
· Whitish feces around the vent.
· Death

Many young chickens and turkeys die of salmonellosis. It is spread through the egg and by direct and indirect contact.

Warning

People can catch salmonellosis by eating infected eggs and meat.

Prevention

· Proper hygiene and sanitation.

Treatment

No treatment is recommended since the disease can be transmitted to humans. Kill the affected chicken and cook the meat completely. Bury the other parts so that the disease cannot spread.