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close this bookSeeds and Plant Propagation. Agroforestry Technology Information Kit (IIRR, 1992, 105 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
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View the documentWorkshop to revise the agroforestry technology information kit (ATIK)
View the documentWorkshop to revise the agroforestry technology information kit (ATIK) - November 16-21, 1992 IIRR, Silang, Cavite
View the documentCurrent program thrusts in upland development
View the documentSeeds and plant propagation: An overview
View the documentTiming of seed collection
View the documentSeed processing
View the documentSeed quality testing
View the documentHastening seed germination
View the documentSeed treatement for better and faster germination
View the documentSeed storage and longevity
View the documentAgroforestry seed storage
View the documentTree nursery: Establishment and management
View the documentVegetative propagation
View the documentAsexual propagation methods for commonly used agroforestry species: Fruit crops
View the documentRooting of cuttings in homemade mist chambers

Seed treatement for better and faster germination





DAYS TO GERMINATION

DAYS GERMINATION

SCIENTIFIC

COMMON

TREATMENT/

(WITH TREATMENT/

(WITHOUT TREATMENT/PREPARATION)

NAMES

NAMES

PREPARATION

PREPARATION)


Acacia anuera

Anuera

Soak in tap water for 20-30 minutes.

not indicated

not indicated



Immerse in boiling water until it cools.



Acacia auriculiformis

Auri, Japanese Acacia

Immerse in boiling water for 30 seconds to 1 minute and soak overnight in cool water.

3-8

7-10



Immerse in hot water for 3-10 minutes and soak overnight in tap water.





Immerse in boiling water for 520 seconds and soak in tap water for 24 hours.



Acacia confuse

Ayangile

Immerse in boiling water for 5-10 seconds.

not indicated

not indicated

Acacia mangium

Mangium, Hickory wattle

Immerse for 30 seconds in boiling water and soak overnight in cold water.

3-6

5-30



Immerse in boiling water for 5-20 seconds and soak in tap water for 24 hours.



Acacia villosa

Villosa

Scarify mechanically.

4-8

8-12



Soak in tap water for 49 hours.



Adenanthera microsperma

Saga, Java tanglin

Scarify mechanically.

8-10

10-20



Immerse in boiling water for 5 seconds.



Agathis dammara (A. philippinensis)

Almaciga, Manila copal

Soak in cold water for 24 hours.

not indicated

not indicated

Albizia julibirissin

Silk tree

Immerse in boiling water for 5-20 seconds and soak in tap water for 24 hours.

not indicated

not indicated

Albizia lebbek

Langil, Black ebony

Immerse in boiling water for 2 minutes and soak overnight in tap water.

3-10

not indicated



Immerse in hot water and soak for 24 hours.



Albizia lebbekoides

Kariskis

Soak in hot water, let cool and soak overnight.

3-4

not indicated

Albizia procera

Akleng parang
White siris

Immerse in boiling water for 5 seconds and soak overnight in cold water.

5-10

16-25



Immerse in boiling water for 2 minutes and soak overnight in tap water.





Soak in tap water for 2448 hours.



Albizia saman (Samanea saman)

Acacia Raintree

Immerse in boiling water for 24 hours and soak in tap water until it cools off.

7-15

16-25



Immerse in hot water for 3 minutes and soak overnight in cold water.





Soak in ethyl alcohol for 4 hours with occasional stirring.



Aleurites moluccana

Lumbang, Candle nut tree

Mix 2 parts of seeds with 1 part mud. Cover container with jute sack and expose to direct sunlight for 30 days.

10

not indicated



Peel, nick or crack the shell.



Alnus species

Alder

None required

-

10-22

Anacardium occidentale

Cashew, Kasuy

Remove remaining tissue at point of attachment to flesh

11-14

14-17

Annona muricata

Guyabano, Soursop

Soak overnight, air-dry and store at room condition for 1 month.

17-20

18-60

Annona squamosa

Atis, Sweetsop

Air-dry and store at room condition for 3 weeks.

11-20

20-30

Anthocephalus chinensis

Kaatoan bangkal

None required

-

21-28

Artocarpus camansi

Kamansi

None required

-

10-15

Artocarpus heterophyllus

Langka, Jackfruit

Remove seed coat, wash and soak in cold water for 24 hours.

3-5

14

Artocarpus odoratissima

Marang

None required

-

14-22

Averrhoa bilimbi

Camias
Cucumber tree

Wash slimy covering and air-dry.

5-7

7-10

Averrhoa carambola

Balimbing, Starfruit

Remove slimy covering and air-dry.

11-25

20-40

Azadirachta indica

Neem

Soak in tap water for 3-6 days.

7-15

not indicated

Bambusa blumeana

Kawayan tinik, Thorny bamboo

Soak in cold water for 48 hours.

not indicated

not indicated

Bauhinia purpurea

Fringon morado hours.

Soak in tap water for 24

4-8

18

Bixa orellana

Achuete, Annatto

None required

-

7

Cajanus cajan

Kadios, Pigeon pea

None required

-

4-6

Calamus merrilli

Rattan, Palasan

Scarify mechanically

3-7

45



Remove hilum.



Calliandra calothyrsus

Calliandra

Immerse in hot water and soak in tap water for 24 hours.

3-6

7-12



Soak in cold/tepid water for 24





Immerse in boiling water for 2 minutes and soak overnight in tap water.



Cananga odorata

Ilang-ilang

Soak in hot water for 24 hours.

less than 60

60-80

Canarium ovatum

Pili, Pili nut

None required

-

30-45

Carica papaya

Papaya

Remove gelatinous material, wash clean and air-dry.

10

14-21

Cassia fistula

Golden shower

None required

-

7-14

Cassia occidentalis

Cassia seconds.

Immerse in boiling water for 5

1-3

3-5

Cassia siamea

Balayong tindalo, Thailand shower

Immerse in hot water and soak for 12-24 hours.

3-7

12-17



Soak in cold/tepid water for 48-72 hours.



Cassia spectabilis

Antsoan-dilau

Immerse in boiling water for 3 seconds

8-12

14-30



Soak in hot water for 12 hours.





Immerse in boiling water for 5-20 seconds and soak in tap water for 24 hours.



Casuarina equisetifolia

Agoho, Casuarina

None required

-

7-21

ChrysophyIlum cainito

Caimito, Starapple

None required

-

18-40

Citrus grandis

Lukban, Suha, Pomelo

Wash slimy materials and air-dry.

16-20

not indicated

Citrus madurensis

Kalamansi, Kalamondin

Wash slime from seeds and air-dry.

5-10

not indicated

Cocos nucifera

Coconut, Niyog

Place nuts 2/3 into soil with wide segment down.

not indicated

70-160

Coffee arabica

Kape, Coffee

Remove parchment and soak in cold water for 24 hours.

30

3045

Corypha utan (C. elata)

Buli, Buri palm

Remove hard fibrous seed.

14-30

70-80



Remove hilum.



Crotalaria pallida (C. arincana)

Crotalaria

None required

2-8


Delonix regia

Fire tree

Immerse in boiling water for 10 seconds.

12-20

15-25



Soak in cold/tepid water for 24 hours.



Desmodium discolor

Desmodium

Immerse in boiling water for 5 seconds.

3-6

5-9

Desmodium rensonii

Rensoni

Immerse in boiling water for 10-20 seconds.

3-6

5-8

Diospyros philippinensis

Mabolo, Kamagong, Talagang

Scarify mechanically.

10-14

16-20



Soak in tap water for 2448 hours.





Soak in boiling water for 5 minutes.





Soak in hot water (50°C) for 30 minutes.



Durio zibethinus

Durian, Civet fruit

Remove aril.

8-17

not indicated

Endospermum peltatum

Gubas Soak in tap water for 12 hours.

25-45

not indicated


Erythrina indica

Dapdap, Anii, Rarang

Soak in cold/tepid water for 24 hours.

10-15

20-25

Eucalyptus rostrata (E deglupta)

Bagras, Eucalyptus

None required-

-

3-8

Flemingia macrophylla

Flemingia

Soak in tap water for 48 hours.

3-7

5-10



Immerse in boiling water for 3-10 seconds.





Immerse in hot water for 1 minute.



Garcinia mangostana

Mangosteen

Remove flesh and fiber, use large seeds weighing 1 gram or more for greater viability and survival.

20-30

more than 30

Gliricidia septum

Kakawate, Madre de Cacao, Ouick stick

Soak in hot water for 30 seconds and cool overnight.

5-7

9-12



Scarify mechanically.





Soak in tap water for 24 hours.



Gmelina arborea

Gmelina Yemane, Paper tree

Soak in cold/tepid water for 48 hours.

6-14

2040



Soak in tap water for 24 hours.





Soak in hot water for 10 minutes.





Imbibe in dark, moist sand for 30 days.



Hopea foxworthyii

Dalingdingan

Remove wings.

2

not indicated

Indigofera tinctoria

Tayum, Indigofera

None required

-

2

Intsia bijuga

Ipil Moluccan iron wood

Soak for 15 to 24 hours.

2-5

7-14



Nick seedcoat



Lansium domesticum

Lansones

Remove adhering tissue, wash and air-dry Use big, plump and heavy seeds (1 gram or more).

8-15

13-16

Leucaena diversifolia (acid and hybrid)

Acid ipil-ipil, Diversifolia

Soak in hot water for 3 minutes.

7-15

9-18



Immerse in boiling water for 5 seconds



Leucaena leucocephala

Ipil-ipil Leucaena, Horse tamarind

Soak in tap water for 36 hours.

5-12

12-20



Immerse in hot water for 2-3 minutes and soak in water for 24-72 hours.





Immerse in boiling water for 2 minutes and soak overnight in tap water.





Soak in hot water for 12 hours.



Livistona rotundifolia

Anahaw, Fan palm

Soak for 24 hours.

2-3

not indicated



Remove hilum cover.



Mangifera indica

Mango, Mangga

Remove husk to improve quality and uniformity of seedlings.

10-15

36

Manilkara zapota (Achras zapota)

Chico, Chickle tree

Soak in tap water for 1-6 hours.

18-20

16-44

Melia azedarach

Paraiso, Umbrella tree

Soak in cold/tepid water for 48 hours.

not indicated

not indicated



Scarify mechanically.



Moringa oleifera

Malungay, Horse radish tree

None required

-

5-12

Nephelium lappaceum

Rambutan

Wash and clean free from adhering arils.

not indicated

11-17

Ormosia calavensis

Bahai

Soak in tap water for 48 hours.

20

60

Paraseriantines falcataria (Albizia falcataria)

Moluccan sau, Falcata, White albizia

Soak in hot water and allow to cool for 12 hours. If water is not hot, extend cooling to 24 hours.

2-5

8-10



Scarify mechanically.





Immerse in boiling water for 520 seconds and soak in tap water for 24 hours.



Parkia roxburghii

Kupang

Soak in hot water for 5 minutes.

15-20

48



Scarify mechanically.



Persea americana

Avocado, Guacamole

Remove seedcoat.

18-28

21-42

Piliostigma malabaricum (Bauhinia malabarica)

Alibangbang Butterfly tree

Immerse in hot water for 2-3 minutes and soak overnight in tap water.

4-6

5-8

Pinus caribaea

Carribean pine

Soak seeds in tap water for 24 hours and core in 45°C for 2-3 days.

7

not indicated

Pinus kesiya

Benguet pine

Soak in tap water for 6-24 hours. Remove floaters.

4-7

14

Pithecellobium dulce

Kamachile, Manila tamarind

None required

-

5

Pouteria campechiana

Tiessa

Remove shell.

21

49

Prosopis pallida

Prosopis

Soak in hot water.

not indicated

not indicated



Scarify mechanically.



Psidium Bayabas Guava guajava

Remove slime and air-dry.

10

not indicated




Soak in boiling water for 5 minutes.



Pterocarpus indicus

Smooth narra

Soak in hot water (50°C) for 10 minutes.

4-15

not indicated



Soak in hot water for 12 hours.





Soak in boiling water for 3-5





seconds.



Pueraria javanica

Kudzu

Immerse in hot water for 1 minute.

4-12

5-15



Soak for 24 hours.



Sandoricum koetjape

Santol

Rub seeds with sand to remove fibrus covering and wash well. Dry under shade.

not indicated

10-21

Serialbizia acle

Akle

Soak in trot water for 15 hours.

less than 120

120

Sesbania bispinosa

Prickly sesban

Soak for 24 hours.

5-8

6-10

Sesbania grandiflora

Katurai

Soak in cold/tepid water for 24 hours.

not indicated

not indicated

Sesbania sesban

Sesban

Soak in cold/tap water for 24 hours.

3-6

5-7



Immerse in hot water and soak overnight in tap water.



Spondias purpurea

Siniguelas, Saraguelas, Red Mombin

Sterile seeds (use stem cutting)

-

-

Swietenia macrophylla

Large leaf mahogany

Soak in hot water (50°C) for 5 minutes.

8-14

14-28



Break off seed wings.



Syzygium cumini

Duhat, Black plum

None required

-

10-21

Syzygium samarangense

Macopa

Wash, remove all adhering flash.

10-12

12-25

Tamarindus indica

Tamarind, Sampaloc

None required

10-14


Tectona grandis

Teak Yati

Soak seeds in running water for 24-72 hours. Sundry for 1-2 days.

14-68

90



Repeat soaking and drying for 12-14 days.





Soak in boiling water for 48 hours and allow to stand in cold water for 24 hours.





Pour boiling to hasten disintegration of seed cover.



Terminalia ivorensis


Alternate soaking and drying for 7 days.

not indicated

not indicated

Theobroma cacao

Cacao, Cocoa

Remove mucilage by rubbing between hands or sand.

less than 14

14

Trema orientalis

Anabiong, Charcoal tree

Immerse in lukewarm water for indicated 5-10 minutes.

not indicated




Macerate and wash.



Vitex parviflora

Molave

Remove pericarp (hard covering) of fruit.

5-10

10

Wikstroemia sp.

Salago

Scarify mechanically.

7-20

more than 30



Crack seed coat lightly.



Ziziphus jujube

Manzanitas

None required


30