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close this bookSeeds and Plant Propagation. Agroforestry Technology Information Kit (IIRR, 1992, 105 p.)
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View the documentWorkshop to revise the agroforestry technology information kit (ATIK)
View the documentWorkshop to revise the agroforestry technology information kit (ATIK) - November 16-21, 1992 IIRR, Silang, Cavite
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View the documentSeeds and plant propagation: An overview
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Timing of seed collection

The value of a seedlot depends on its authenticity or "trueness-to-type", germination capacity. general health and ability to withstand stresses in the field and during storage. To a large extent, selection of mother trees, of fruits in the tree and the technique and timing of seed collection determines the quality of harvested seeds. To assure e good quality seedlot, seed collection Ups should be observed.

SELECTION OF MOTHER TREES


Picture 1

Survey the area for potential mother trees. A good mother tree should be vigorous, healthy, with abundant and healthy fruits and of good growth and form representing the purpose for which it is grown (i.e., for timber, fodder or fruit). Collect only from mature and healthy trees. Avoid very young trees or plants.

Also, avoid choosing an area where only few trees of the same species grow, especially if they are naturally cross pollinating. A large population gives a better chance of selecting good mother trees. Avoid collecting in stands with numerous poorly-formed, off-colored, abnormal o_r disease-infected trees. Collect fruits/seeds from trees standing in the center of the field. Make sure that seeds come from many trees of the same kind and quality to ensure that the seedlot contains all the representative characteristics of the variety.

METHODS OF FRUIT/SEED COLLECTION

1. From the ground

Collecting fruits/seeds from the ground is common especially for large-fruited species or species with seeds that are naturally dispersed. Although convenient, this practice increases the risk of collecting immature, empty, decayed/deteriorated and sprouted/germinated seeds. Identifying the source of seeds (mother trees) would also be difficult, especially when crowns of trees are interlocking.

Some points to consider in collecting fruits/seeds from the ground:

· Gather sound fruits and seeds right after they have fallen. Avoid collecting first fruits that fall during the season as they are often of poor quality.

· Shedding of mature fruits/seeds may be induced by shaking the trunks of small trees. Long poles, aided by hooks and ropes, could be used for taller trees. Lay a mat on the ground to avoid seeds from touching the ground and to facilitate collection.

Examples of seeds that can be collected from the ground:

· heavy, fleshy fruits

kaatoan bangkal (Anthocephalus chinensis), kamagong (Diospyros phi/ippensis), santol (Sandoricum koetjape), pangi (Pangium edule)

· medium-sized fruits with hard kernel

lumbang (Aleurites moluccana), bagilumbang (Aleurites trisperma), yemane (Gmelina arborea), teak (Tectona grandis), talisay (Terminalia catappa), kalumpit (Terminalia microcarpa), bitaog (Calophyllum inophyllum), pill (Canarium ovatum)

· large pods

fire tree (Delonix regia), rain tree (Albizia saman), antsoan (Cassia javanica), sampalok (Tamarindus indica), ipil (Intsia bijuga), tindalo (Afzelia rhomboidea), dapdap (Erythrina spp.)

· large capsules

mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), kalumpang (Sterculia foetida)

· large winged fruits

narra (Pterocarpus indicus), dipterocarps


Picture 2

2. From standing


Picture 3

Direct access from the ground. Pick fruits/seeds from the lower branches by hand. Bend, cut, break or saw branches. Examples are: calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus), madre de cacao (Gliricidia septum), rensoni (Desmodium rensonii), sesbania (Sesbania rostrata) and katurai (Sesbania grandiflora).

Climbing trees. Pick fruits/seeds from higher branches by climbing up the trees. This technique assures seed collection from well-identified mother trees. It is also applicable for small-seeded species, winged seeds, fruits/pods that split open when mature, or fruits/seeds that are prone to insect, rodent and mold attack on the ground. Examples are: (1) small berries or drupes (e.g., Eucalyptus species, bottlebrush); (2) leguminous species which open their pods on the tree (e.g., ipilipil Leucaena spp., Moluccan sau Paraserianthes falcataria, kamachile Pithecellobium dulce, tanglin Adenanthera intermedia); and, (3) small, winged, wind-disseminated seeds (e.g., Benguet pine Pinus kesiya, Mindoro pine Pinus merkusii, Japanese alder Alnus japonica, agoho Casuarina equisetifolia, dita Alstonia scholaris, African tulip Spathodea campanulata, kalantas Toona calantas, banaba Lagerstroemia speciosa).

Special skills and support equipment (like ladders, climbing iron with spikes, safety belts) are needed to access fruits from higher parts of the tree.

3. From crowns of felled trees

Collection of seeds from felled trees is easier and usually a lot quicker. However, this should be avoided as much as possible since this could lead to significant reduction in tree population and expose the soil to erosion.

TIMING OF SEED COLLECTION

1. Collect fruits/seeds at about mid-moming or midafternoon when it is sunny and not windy. This avoids pod shattering or obtaining pods or seeds that are moist with dew.

2. Harvest fruits/seeds only from trees where most of the fruits are mature (i.e., avoid overmature and immature ones). Do not collect seeds from fruits that flowered early or late.

3. To know when a fruit or seed is mature requires familiarity with the species. Some common indices of maturity are changes in size, texture and color (usually from green to various shades of yellow, red, purple, brown or black). Certain fruits dry up while others become soft and sometimes aromatic when ripe. Collect seeds from shattering fruits, cones or pods (e.g., pine, eucalyptus, ipil-ipil Leucaena spp., agoho, Moluccan sau, banaba, Acacia mangium, akle Serialbizia acle and Sesbania) before they dry up and shed or when still greenish or yellowish in color. Maturity of those with closed cones or fruits, e.g., Gmelina, can be assessed better by cutting through and examining the fruit. Collection of green or yellow fruits would also minimize fermentation during temporary storage of unextracted seeds.

RECORD-KEEPING

Mark mother trees for future collection. Record the site, location of trees within site and date of collection. This will serve as reference in evaluating performance of seedlots in relation to origin and seed source (provenance) as well as predicting seed longevity.

TABLE 1. SAMPLE SEED COLLECTION SCHEDULE OF SOME COMMONLY USED AGF SPECIES.

SCIENTIFIC NAME

COMMON NAME

COLLECTION SCHEDULE

Acacia auriculiformis

Auri

Ca(4,5);



Dv(5,7, 12);



In(11,1,2,3,4);



I(1,2,3,4);



L(4,5); M(2-5);



N(4,5)

Acacia mangium

Mangium

In(12); I(1-4)

Albizia falcalari

Moluccan sau

C(6,7); Dv(6)

Albizia lebbek

Langil

L(2)

Albizia lebbekoides

Kariskis

In(1,2,5)

Albizia procera

Akleng parang

A(2-5);



Be(4,5, 11);



Is(3); Lu(2);



Bt(4,5,6); Bu(1);



Me(1); M(1);



Ne(2); Z(1)

Aleurites moluccana

Lumbang

C(6); Nv(11,12);



L(6,B,9); Ag(4);



N(1,2); Ce(8,9);



Bo(4,5); Dv(6-7)

Anthocephalus chinensis

Kaatoan bangkal

L(B,9), MM(8,9);



Bo(8); Es(1,12);



M(11-12); S(1);



C(9);

Azadirachta indica

Neem tree

P(6,7,8)

Bixa arellana

Achuete

MM(12, 1,2, 3,4);



M(14)

Cajanus cajan

Kadios

M(12,2,4);



Bt(4,5);



L(1,2,3,4, 12);

Cananga odorata

Ilang-ilang

Nv(5); Bo(11);



L(3,4); S(7,8);



Io(9)

Cassia spectabilis

Antsoan dilaw

Bo(5,6); Z(1);



L(3,4); Ma(1,2);



I(4,5); Io(4);



NV(1,5); A (4)



Lu(3,4);

Casuarina equisitifolie

Agoho

A(2,5); Be(9);



Is(3,4,9); M(3



Lu(1,2); Bl(9);



Pn(2,5,6);



Ne(1,2); Io(7)



Me(1,2);



Sy(3,7,8);



Pa(1,2); Z(2);



P(3,10); Q(3,9



Sn(7,8), N(1,2



S(4); Le(1,2);



C(5,6); Nv(5,6



Bo(5,8); Po(9



L(4,5,10);



Ma(8); N(1,2);



Ce(8,9); T(1,9



S(4,5,6);



Za(1,2,3);

Ceiba pentandra

Kapok

Ce(9); L(3);



Io(3); Dv(4);



M(3-4); Is(1)

Delonix regia

Fire tree

Pa,L,Ca,An,N



(11,12); Ag(10);



Za(5); Ba(9);



Ca(8); Io(10);



N(1); Cs(1);



Nv(4); Is(3,4);



Lu(3,4);

Diospyros philippensis

Kamagong

L(7,8,9,10);



Co(1-12);



Ba(9,10,11,12);



Mi(3-12);



Le(4-11), N(3-



12); Ca(4,5,6)

Erythina orientalis

Dapdap

L(4-8); Io(10)

Erythrina variegate

Mottled leaf dapdap

MM(11-4)

Gliricidia septum

Kakawate

Ce(4); Bo(4,12);



C(7); is(4,5,6);



In(4,5,6); A(6);



Lu(4,5,6);



Pn(4,5,6);



Ce(5); Ne(3);



Bu,Pa(4,5,6);



Io(4); M(2-5)

Gmelina arborea

Yemane

Nv(3,4,5,6);



A(7); S(6,7);



N(2,3,4,5,6);



Za(3); Ag(4);



T(4,6); Io(12);



Dv(9-10); M(3



6); C(5,6)

Intsia bijuga

Ipil

C(6,7,8,12);



Nv(12); Ba(1,7);



L(1,3,11,12);



M(6,8,10,11,12);



P(2,6,8,12);



Ro(4); Nc(3,6);



Bs(12); Sy(4);



Pa(10); Bt(1,7);



Mp(12)

Lagerstroemia speciosa

Banaba

A(2); Be(12);



Is(12); Lu(2);



Pn(4); Bt(5);



C(3,5); Nv(10);



Bt(5,7, 11);



Bu(6); Ne(9);



L(9-12);



Ma(1,2,3); P(6);



Q(3,4,1 0);



R(2,12)); Cs(5);



An(11,12); Io(8);



Bo(6); S(1,2);



Le(1); Ag(9);



Mi(5); So(4,5);



M(2, 10-12);



S(2); Lu(1);

Leucaena leucocephala

Ipil-ipil

*

Melia dubia

Bagalunga

*

Moringa oleifera

Malunggay

*

Peltophorum pterocarpum

Siar

Ba(7); Ne(9);



L(9); P(9);



Dv(8-10)

Piliostigma malabaricum

Alibangbang

N(3,4); T(1,2,9);



L(8,9); Io(4,5)

Pinus kesiya

Benguet pine

Be(1,5.6,9,12);



Ne(2)

Pterocarpus grandiflora

Prickly narra

K(5,6); In(11);



Lu(2); L(5,7);



Bu(1); Nv(8,9);



Ne(1,9); L(7



11); M(3); Dv(9



10); Me(4);



Io(3,4); Ce(7);



Bo(11,12); Io(8)

Pterocarpus indicus

Smooth narra

A(6,10); Lu(2);



Pa(10); T(7);



L(7,8); Ce(7);



Ma(7,3, 10);



M(9); R(9);



Bn(4); Q(7);



Cs(6,7); Me(4);



So(6); lo(3,4);



N(12); Dv(9-10);



Bo(11,12); S(4,5);



Zs(6); Ag(6,7,8);



Mr(11,12); Io(8);

Sesbania grandiflora

Katurai

*

Swietenia macrophylla

Mahogany

A(1,2,3);



Is(2, 12);



Lu(2,12); C(2,3);



Nv(1,2,3,12);



T(12); L(1,2);



Ma(8); Io(3);



N(2,3); Ce(2);



Bo(1,2,3);



S(2,12); Za(3);



Ag(3); Bn(2);



Sn(6,7,8);



Io(12,1); Dv(7



8); M(10-12)

Tectona grandis

Teak

A(10,11,12);



Mp(10,11);



Lu(1,5); C(2,3);



Nv(2,4,5);



Pa(1,2);



T(1,2,12);



L(5,6); R(10);



Ce(4); Io(3,4);



N(3,4); Bo(1,2);



S(1,11,12);



Za(3,6); Ag(2);



Su(1); Mr(2,3,4);



Co(11); Io(3);



Dv(9)

Terminalia catappa

Talisai

Nv(6,8); T(2,3);



Ma(8,9, 10);



Io(8)

Trema orientalis

Anabiong

L(9)

Vitex parviflora

Molave

A(1,2); Be(8);



Is(9); Lu(10);



Pn(2,4); Nv(1);



Ba(8,10); Bu(7);



L(9, 10);



Ma(11, 12);



M(1); Me(10);



Ne(3,4,8);



Io(3);Ce(1);



Bo(5); Si(12);



Le(2); Bs(9);



Za(9); Ag(9);



Mi(4); So(2,7);



Dv(5); Co(5,6);



Lo(10); Io(12);



Dv(9)

Note: Prepared by Remedios Evangelista of the DENR. More information on the collection schedule and on the occurrence of species, including other common or local names, can be found in Agroforestry Seeds Circular Supplement (June 1991 and January 1992 issues). The materials include about 300 species.

LEGEND:

1 - January
2 - February
3 - March
4 - April
5 - May
6 - June
7 - July
8 - August
9 - September
10 - October
11 - November
12 - December
* - year round and all throughout the country
A - Abra
Ag - Agusan
An - Antique
Ba - Batangas
Be - Benguet
Bl - Baler
Bn - Bukidnon
Bo - Bohol
Bs - Basilan
Bt - Bataan
Bu - Bulacan
C - Cagayan
Ca - Cavite
Ce - Cebu
Co - Cotabato
Cs - Camarines
Dv - Davao
Es - Eastern Samar
I - Isabela
In - Ilocos Norte
Io - Iloilo
Is - Ilocos Sur
K - Kalinga Apayao
L - Laguna
Le - Leyte
Lo - Lanao
Lu - La Union
M - Mindoro
Ma - Marinduque
Me - Masbate
Me - Misamis
MM - Metro Manila
Mp - Mountain Province
Mr - Misamis Oriental
N - Negros
Nc - Negros Or;c.
Ne - Nueva Ecija
Nv - N. Vizcaya
P - Palawan
Pa - Pampanga
Pn - Pangasinan
Po - Polilio
Q - Quezon
R - Rizal
Ro - Romblon
S - Samar
Si - Siquijor
Sn - Sorsogon
So - Surigao
Sy - Sibuyan
T - Tarlac
Z - Zambales
Za - Zamboanga
Zs - Zamboanga del Sur