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close this bookTrees and their Management (IIRR, 1992, 195 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentMessage
View the documentProceedings of the workshop
View the documentList of participants
View the documentCurrent program thrusts in upland development
View the documentTrees and their management
View the documentSustainable agroforest land technology (Salt-3)
View the documentOutplanting seedlings
View the documentTree pruning and care
View the documentBagging of young fruits
View the documentEstablishing bamboo farms
View the documentPhilippine bamboo species: Their characteristics, uses and propagation
View the documentGrowing rattan
View the documentGrowing anahaw
View the documentGrowing buri
View the documentShelterbelts
View the documentBank stabilization
View the documentAssessing the usefulness of indigenous and locally adapted trees for agroforestry
View the documentA guide for the inventory, identification and screening of native plant species with potential for agroforestry
View the documentFruit trees for harsh environments
View the documentCitrus production
View the documentJackfruit production
View the documentMango production
View the documentMiddle to high understory shade tolerant crops
View the documentLow understory shade-tolerant crops
View the documentConserving available fuelwood

Bank stabilization

River/stream bank erosion is the scouring, undercutting or the collapse of banks of water caused by the flow of water. The factors that contribute to this type of erosion are the soil type, the velocity and the volume of water.

Protection of the river/stream bank will lead to the stabilization of the water courses, the protection of the farm from "being eaten" by the water and making productive the area along the river or stream.


Methods of river/stream bank stabilization

Methods of river/stream bank stabilization

A. Planting of trees, shrubs, bamboos or palms along the bank is a vegetative method of stabilization whereby the roots hold the soil in place and reduce the impact of water flow. Following are some pointers in stabilizing river/stream bank by planting:

1. In the zone from low to medium water level, only grasses and shrubs are allowed to be planted -the species that are able to survive prolonged inundation and are flexible enough not to break in the water current.

2. In the zone from medium to high water level, some tree, palm or bamboo species can be planted with grasses and shrubs.

3. In the zone above the high water level, trees, palms or bamboos are planted with or without shrubs.


Stabilization of river/stream banks through planting

B. Construction of temporary and emergency measures. These measures are usually applied in areas along banks that are already collapsed or in danger of collapsing. These measures are used to support the more permanent river/stream bank stabilization.

1. Rauhbaum Method -- This is the placing of dense and well-branched trees, tree tips or bamboos along the bank. It is tied and anchored by a strong peg and the butt end is pointing upstream. This measure is used to protect the bank from the direct impact of water flow while waiting for the establishment of the more permanent stabilization measures.


Rauhbaum Method

2. Temporary Groynes -- A series of temporary structures of dense and well-branched trees, tree tops or bamboos are used. These structures are placed pointing upstream, perpendicular to the flow of water and pointing downstream in order to direct the direction of flow, reduce the velocity of water and partly accept the deposition of soil sediments. The measure is used only in wide and shallow rivers or streams.


Temporary Groynes


The measure is used only in wide and shallow rivers or streams.


Plugging of river/stream bank

3. Plugging of river/stream bank - This is a temporary, measure to protect banks that are in danger of collapsing by placing dense crowns of brushwood supported by pegs along the eroded portion.


Slating pegs or posts

TABLE 8. RECOMMENDED PLANT SPECIES FOR RIVER/STREAM BANK STABILIZATION (BY Region).

SCIENTIFIC NAME

COMMON NAME

REGION



1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Serialbizia acie

Akle

x

x

x

-

-

x

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cassia spectabilis

Antsoan dilau

x

x

x

x

x

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Acacia equisetifolia

Acacia

-

-

x

x

x

x

-

x

x

-

-

-

Spathodea campalnulata

African tulip

-

-

-

x

x

-

-

-

x

x

-

-

Paraserianthes falcataria

Mollucan Sau

-

-

-

x

x

-

-

-

x

x

-

-

Artocarpus blancoi

Antipolo

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

x

-

-

-

-

Bamboo spp

Bamboos

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Nauclea orientalis

Bangkal

x

x

x

x

x

x

-

x

x

-

x

x

Alstonia macrophylla

Batino

x

-

x

-

-

x

-

-

-

x

x

x

Calophyllum inophyllum

Bitaog

-

-

x

-

-

-

-

x

-

-

-

-

Ochroma pyramidale

Balsa

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

x

-

-

Diplodiscus paniculatus

Balobo

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

x

-

-

-

Cinchoma. succirubra

Cinchoma

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

x

Cocos nucifera

Niog

-

-

-

x

x

-

-

x

x

-

-

-

Alstonia scholaris

Dita

x

-

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Dracontomelon dao

Dao

-

-

x

x

-

-

-

x

-

-

-

-

Gmelina arborea

Gmelina

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Endospermum peItatum

Gubas

-

-

-

x

x

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Intsia bijuga

Ipil

x

x

-

-

-

-

-

x

-

-

-

x

Leucaena feucocephala

Ipil-ipil

-

-

-

x

x

x

x

x

x

-

-

x

Cananga odorata

Ilang-ilang

x

-

x

x

x

x

-

x

x

x

x

x

Sterculia foetida

Kalumpang

x

x

-

-

-

-

-

-

x

-

-

-

Anthocephalus chinensis

Katoan

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

x

x

-

-


Bangkal













Toona calantas

Kalantas

-

-

-

-

-

x

-

x

x

-

-

-

Sesbania grandiflora

Katurai

-

-

-

-

-

x

-

x

x

-

-

-

Sindora inemmis

Kayugalo

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

x

-

-

-

Wrightia lanite

Lanete

x

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Aleurites moluccana

Lumbang

-

-

-

-

-

-

x

-

-

-

-

-

Dracontomelon edule

Laniko

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

x

-

-

-

-

Swietenia macrophylla

Mahogany

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Litsea perrottetti

Marang

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

x

-

-

-

Moringa oleifera

Malunggay

-

-

-

x

x

-

-

x

-

-

-

-

Cinnamomum mindanaense

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

x

-

-

-


Mindanao

cinnamon













Pterocarpus indicus

Narra

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

-

x

x

x

Sandorium koetjape

Santol

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

x

-

x

x

-

Sindona supa

Supa

x

-

x

x

x

-

-

x

-

-

-

-

Tectona grandis

Teak

x

x

x

-

-

x

x

-

x

x

x

x

Ficus note

Tibig

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

-

-

-

Bischofia javanica

Tuai

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

x

-

-

-

-

Afzelia rhomboidea

Tindalo

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Hevea brazilensis

Para rubber

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

x

-

-

x

Samanea saman

Raintree

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Gliricidia septum

Kakawati

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Terminalia catappa

Talisai

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Sources: Area/Species Guidelines for Reforestation in the Philippines, Wiedelt, H. J. 1976. (Manual of Reforestation and Erosion Control for the Philippines, GTZ. West Germany.)