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close this bookTrees and their Management (IIRR, 1992, 195 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentMessage
View the documentProceedings of the workshop
View the documentList of participants
View the documentCurrent program thrusts in upland development
View the documentTrees and their management
View the documentSustainable agroforest land technology (Salt-3)
View the documentOutplanting seedlings
View the documentTree pruning and care
View the documentBagging of young fruits
View the documentEstablishing bamboo farms
View the documentPhilippine bamboo species: Their characteristics, uses and propagation
View the documentGrowing rattan
View the documentGrowing anahaw
View the documentGrowing buri
View the documentShelterbelts
View the documentBank stabilization
View the documentAssessing the usefulness of indigenous and locally adapted trees for agroforestry
View the documentA guide for the inventory, identification and screening of native plant species with potential for agroforestry
View the documentFruit trees for harsh environments
View the documentCitrus production
View the documentJackfruit production
View the documentMango production
View the documentMiddle to high understory shade tolerant crops
View the documentLow understory shade-tolerant crops
View the documentConserving available fuelwood

A guide for the inventory, identification and screening of native plant species with potential for agroforestry

Native species abound in the uplands. They need to be inventoried, identified and assessed to determine their potential for agroforestry. To do these, agroforestry technicians need the necessary skills and tools. This simple guide is a helpful reference material.

STEPS

· Inventory. Make a list of native tree and shrub species common in the locality.

· Selection. Single out among the species which ones have potentials based on their productive and protective values.

· Propagule availability. Construct a local seed forecasting calendar for selected species.

· Adaptability. Determine the adaptability of species to various conditions by evaluating their distribution and/or conducting species trials.

· Integration. If adaptability of species are established, assess how the species may be integrated with crops in the agroforest farms.

INVENTORY OF LOCALLY AVAILABLE PLANT SPECIES

Avail of the help of the elderly in the community as guide and informant.

Make a preliminary list of species by spot identification in the field. Record local names and economic uses.

Collect specimens of small branch with leaves and, if possible, with flowers and fruits and bark.

Place the specimens with their label temporarily in a plastic bag or gunny sack during collection trip.

Immediately transfer the specimens to a pair of pressers. The labeled specimens are placed between sheets of newspaper and then inserted between the pair of pressers. Tie the four comers tightly together.

Label should contain the following information:

- Local Name
- Place of Collection
- Date of Collection
- Elevation
- Habitat or environmental preference
- Color of flower
- Habit
- Economic uses

Send the unknown specimens, as soon as possible, to the taxonomist for proper identification.

If specimens will not reach the taxonomist within five days, dry them by hanging the presser above the stove. This will prevent decay of specimens.

Consult taxonomy books for the official common name and scientific names. These include:

- Lexicon of Philippine Trees
- Flora Malesiana
- Enumeration of Philippine Flowering Plants

PRELIMINARY SELECTION OF SPECIES FOR TRIALS IN AGROFOREST FARMS

Single out species from the list which may be given priority for integration in agroforestry farm.

Base the selection on the uses of species and their features that may make them probably compatible with agroforestry crops.

Conduct survey on how and when local people use a particular species. The sample form below may be used.

Name of respondent: __________________ Age:________
Place of residence:________________________________
No. of years of residence:___________________________
If migrant, state place of origin:
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________

Name of Species

:

Local Name

:

Construction

:

Woodcraft

:

Fuelwood

:

Food

:

Feed-fodder-pasture

:

Medicine

:

Poison/Pesticide

:

Extractives (Oil,


easential oil)

:

Exudates (gums,


resins and latex)

:

Fiber

:

Etc.


After survey, refer to literature or any published books on the uses of Philippine plant species.

These include:

Brown, W. H. 1919. Philippine Fiber Plants. Phil. Burl For. Bull. 19.

Brown, W. H. 1920. Minor Products of Phil. Forests. Dept. of Agric. and Nat. Res. Burl For. Phil. Is. Bull. 22.

Brown, W. H. 1941. Useful Plants of the Phil. Manila, 3 vols.

Gana, V. Q. 1916. Some Philippine Tanbarks. Phil. Joumal of Science. Sect. A. 261-265.

Guerrero, Leon Ma. 1921. Medicinal Uses of Phil. Plants. Dept. of Agric. and Nat. Res. Burl For. Phil. Is.

Mulier, T. 1913. Industrials Fiber Plants of the Phil., Phil. Burl Ed. Bull. 9.

Quisumbing, E.1951. Medicinal Plants of the Phil. Dept. Agric. and Nat. Res. Manila. Tech. Bull. 16.

Uphoff, J.C. Th. 1968. Dictionary of Economic Plants. New York: Verkag Von J. Cramer, 591.

West, A.P. and W.H. Brown' 1920. Phil. Resins, Gums, Seed Oils and Essential Oils. Phil. Burl For. Bull. 20.

Wester, P.J. 1925. The Food Plants of the Philippines. Dept. of Agric. and Nat. Res. Burl Agric. Phil.

See also journals such as the following:

CANOPY. Published by FORI-MNR (now ERDB-DENR)

TECHNICAL NOTES. Published by FORPRIDECOM (now FPRDI-DOST)

Use index cards when extracting information from the library. Transfer the information in a logbook in alphabetical order. Example:

Anonang Cordia dichotoma EHRETIACEAE small tree

Wood for temporary construct/on, tool handles and agricultural implements (Reyes, 1938; Monsalud, 1968), fuelwood moisture free 22.49 Ibs/cu. ft. burns 4,397 cal/kg or 7,916 BTU/lb, 64,983 cal/cu. ft. or 80,728 BTU/cu. ft. (Aguilar, 1949). Bark yields best fibers made into rope. Medicinal according to Quisumbing (1961), the kernels are a good remedy for ringworm; they are powdered, mixed with oil and applied. Fruits pulpy portion eaten raw (Monsalud "al., 1986; Brown, 1966; Brown, 1921, 1961), gelatinous substance In fruit is used as glue. Leaves reported as fodder for cattle, DM 46%, Crude protein 16.8%, Crude fiber 14.7%, Ash 13.1% Ca 2.56%, P 0.22#.

Binunga Macaranga tanrius EUPHORBIACEAE small

Bark yields brown glue extract used to fasten together parts of musical instruments. Bark and haves used in making basi (Brown 1921,1951). Bark decoction medicine for dysentery (according to Heyne as cited by Quisumbing, 1951). Growth rate in Makiling 2.60 cm/year (Brown, 1919). Leaves for deer (Lopez, 1935; Sajor, 1936).

Present in a simple matrix the uses and other important information about the species. This matrix serves as the data base on plant uses for a specific locality. A sample format is shown in Table 11.

TABLE 11. ECONOMIC USES AND PROPAGATION OF LOCAL TREES AND SHRUBS COMMON IN (name of place)

SPECIES

ECONOMIC USES AND PROPAGATION METHODS


Buchanania arborescens

Size Habit

Medium tree

Balinghasai

Construction

x


Woodcraft

x


Fuelwood



Pulpwood



Food

Fruit


Feed/Fodder

Fruit (swine)


Medicine



Poison/Biocide

Prussic acid (stem, leaves)


Exudates



Extractives



Bast Fiber



Textile Fiber



Ornamental



Propagation

Seed

Semecarpus cuneiformis

Size Habit

Small tree

Ligas

Construction

x


Woodcraft



Fuelwood



Pulpwood



Food

Fruit


Feed/Fodder

Fruits (bats, birds)


Medicine

Fruit (ulcer)


Poison Biocide

Prussic acid (root/bark)


Exudates



Extractives



Bast Fiber



Textile Fiber



Ornamental



Propagation

Seed

Cananga odorata

Size Habit

Large tree

llang-ilang

Construction

x


Woodcraft

x

Fuelwood



Pulpwood



Food



Feed/Fodder



Medicine



Poison Biocide



Exudates




Extractives

Flower, essential oil


Bast Fiber



Textile Fiber



Ornamental

Flowers, necklace


Propagation

Seed

Alstonia scholaris

Size Habit

Large tree

Dita

Construction Woodcraft

x

Fuelwood



Pulpwood



Food



Food/Fodder




Medicine

Bark (diarrhea, dysentery)


Poison Biocide

Prussic acid slight (stem and leaves)


Exudates



Extractives



Bast Fiber



Textile Fiber



Omamental



Propagation

Stump cutting

Ervatamia pandacaqui

Size Habit

Shrub

Pandakaki

Construction

x


Woodcraft

x


Fuelwood



Pulpwood



Food

Fruit


Feed/Fodder

Fruit (swine)


Medicine

Leaves, latex, many uses


Poison Biocide



Exudates



Extractives

leaves, bleaching agent


Bast Fiber



Textile Fiber



Ornamental



Propagation

No published work, but use of wildlings may succeed.

Terminalia catappa

Size Habit

Large tree

Talisai

Construction

x


Woodcraft

x


Fuelwood

x


Pulpwood



Food

Savory oil from kernel


Feed/Fodder

Leaves (Tasar, silkworm)


Medicine

Oil of kernel w/sap, leaves (leprosy)


Poison Biocide



Exudates



Extractwes

Tannin, brown dye, black dye


Bast Fiber



Textile Fiber



Ornamental

x


Propagation

Fruit

Cordia dichotoma

Size Habit

Small tree

Anonang

Construction


Woodcraft



Fuelwood



Pulpwood



Food




Feed/Fodder

Leaves


Medicine

Kernel (ringworm, many uses)


Poison Biocide



Exudates



Extractives

Fruit, gelatinous glue


Bast fiber

bark (rope)

Textile Fiber



Ornamental




Propagation

Cutting, seed

Ehetia microphylla

Size Habit

Shrub

Tsang gubat

Construction


Woodcraft



Fuelwood



Pulpwood




Food

Leaves as tea


Feed/Fodder



Medicine

Leaves (dysentery, cough, syphilis)


Poison Biocide



Exudates



Extractives



Bast Fiber



Textile Fiber



Ornamental

x


Propagation

No published work, but use of wildlings may succeed.

Ehretia philippinensis

Size Habit

Small tree

Halimomog

Construction



Woodcraft



Fuelwood



Pulpwood



Food



Feed/Fodder



Medicine

Bark of root (dysentery, diarrhea)


Poison Biocide



Exudates



Extractives



Bast Fiber



Textile Fiber



Ornamental



Propagation

No published work, but use of wildlings may succeed.

Acalypha stipulacea

Size Habit

Shrub

Bogus

Construction


Woodcraft



Fuelwood



Pulpwood



Food




Feed/Fodder

Flowers, leaves (deer, swine)


Medicine


Poison Biocide



Exudates



Extractives



Bast Fiber



Textile Fiber



Ornamental




Propagation

Cutting

Breynia cemua Habit

Shrub


Matang hipon




Construction



Woodcraft



Fuelwood



Pulpwood



Food



Feed/Fodder

Fruits (wildlife)


Medicine


Poison Biocide



Exudates



Extractives



Bast Fiber



Textile Fiber



Omamental




Propagation

No published work, but use of wildlings may succeed.

CONSTRUCTION OF A LOCAL SEED FORECASTING SCHEDULE

Seed forecasting schedule (SFS) is a chart showing when and where seeds are available for a species in the locality. It serves as guide in seed collection.

Steps in making an SFS are:

1. Identify mother trees of selected species and healthy individuals in the locality.

2. Plot these mother trees in a reference map, properly label them for documentation and monitoring purposes.

3. Mark them to notify people that the trees are under study.

4. Observe at least three mother trees per species and record every year their flowering and seeding patterns.

5. Prepare a chart using Table 12 as an example.

Aside from economic uses, base also the selection of species on characteristics. Trees and shrubs may be large, medium and small. They may have wide spreading, dome-shape crown or with horizontal or diagonal branching; leaves are sparse or dense. Roots are deep and wide or shallow and less spreading. Tolerant or intolerant to shade.


TABLE 12. A SAMPLE OF SEED FORECASTING CALENDAR FOR LOS BAS, LAGUNA (Based on Observations, 1960 - 1962).

DETERMINATION OF THE ADAPTABILITY OF PRE-SELECTED SPECIES

Determine the environmental conditions preferred by the species.

Do an actual trial planting of the pre-selected species on specific agroforestry farm. Use more acceptable designs and replications.

Trials can be of two phases: preliminary trial during the first year. Based on performance (survival and growth), reject or retain species. The latter is utilized for final species trials.

An example of the result of species trials is shown in Table 13.

TABLE 13. INDICATIONS OF ADAPTABILITY OF TREES AND SHRUBS OUTPLANTED IN GRASSLAND AND OPEN FOREST BASED FROM ONE YEAR OBSERVATION (OCTOBER 1988-OCTOBER 1989) ON THEIR SURVIVAL, HEIGHT INCREMENT AND VIGOR


SPECIES GRASSLAND


OPEN FOREST





Scientific Name

Common Name

Survival

Height Increment

Vigor

Survival

Height Increment

Vigor



(%)

(%)


(%)

(%)


I. Species with promising adaptabilty

Buchanania nitida

Balitantan

100

19.56

Good

92

13.56

Good

Szygium cumini

Duhat

100

46.45

Very good

75

62.82

Very good

S. calubcob

Kalubkob

83

28.81

Good

83

25.53

Very good

Buchanania arborescens

Balinghasai

75

102.34

Very good

58

106.19

Very good

Lagerstroenia speciosa

Banaba

75

45.07

Poor

92

24.09

Good

Semecarpus cuneiformis

Ligas

75

44.90

Very good

100

42.31

Very good

II. Species with preferred adaptibility to open forest

Abarema

Tiagkot

16

69.77

Good

100

30 16

Good

clypearia








Toona surenii Danupra

8

17.86

Poor

100

53.86

Very good


Clausena brevistyla

Kalomata

0

0

0

100

48.02

Very good

Celtis luzonica

Magabuyo

17

3.96

Poor

92

22.20

Good

Anisoptera thurifera

Pa losapis

8

-

Poor

83

45.03

Very good

Chisocheton pentandrum

Katong matsing

0

0

0

82

13.65

Good

INTEGRATION OF NATIVE PLANT SPECIES IN AGROFORESTRY FARM

Include the native plant species in an agroforestry farm based on their characteristics and adaptation.

Native species may be integrated in agroforestry farm as border species, live fences, hedges,
shelterbelts/greenbelts/windbreaks, upholders to vine crops. Also, for improving/sustaining the
productive and protective value of the farm.

Table 14 shows information relevant for the integration of tree and shrub species in agroforest farm.

Many indigenous tree and shrub species are considered food for farm animals. The following are fodder/browse/forage species, namely: anabiong Trema orientalis, alim Mallotus multiglandulosus, kariskis Albizia lebbekoides, katmon Dillenia philippinensis, kupang (pods) Parkia roxburghii, alibangbang Bauhinia malabarica, tibig Ficus nota, antipolo Artocarpus altilis, salisi Ficus benjamina (strangler habits), binayuyu Antidesma ghaesembilla, binunga Macaranga tanarius, pahutan (young leaves) Mangifera altissima, bagtikan, (tender shoots) Parashorea malaanonan, anubing Artocarpus ovate, aplas Ficus irisana, isis F. ulmifolia, kalios Streblus asper, bolo Gigantochloa levis, libas Spondias pinnate, talisai Terminalia catappa, bogo Garuga floribunda, malubago Hibiscus tiliaceus, malatanglin Adenanthera pavonina, unik Albizia chinensis, and langil A. Iebbeck.

Before integrating native species in an agroforestry farm, ascertain if the site corresponds to the ecological requirements of the species.

TABLE 14. NATIVE SPECIES CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SIZE, ROLES IN SUCCESSION AND CORRESPONDING INTEGRATION IN AGROFORESTRY (Based in Carranglan, Nueva Ecija).


REPRESENTATIVE SPECIES

ADAPTATION AND HABITAT PREFERENCES

POSSIBLE INTEGRATION IN AGROFOREST FARM

Large trees


- Pioneer

Albizia procera

Open, drought and fire resistant

Border fuelwood, timber crop


- Climax

Shorea contorta

Gullies, mid-slope with vegetation of trees, moist

Buffer in gully, timber crop


- Intermediate


Gullies, mid-slope with vegetation, tolerance for open

Buffer in gully, timber crop

Small trees


- Pioneer

Pittosporum pentandrum

In open, drought and fine resistant

Border, live fence fuelwood


- Climax

Lichi chinensis var philippinensis

In forest, moist

Border, live fenxce, fuelwood

Shrub


- Pioneer

Vitex negundo

Open, drought and fire-resistant

Hedge, buffer


- Climax

Wikstroemia sp.

Forest, moist soil

Paper money


- Intermediate

Leucosyske capitellata

Forest, drought-tolerant

Fuelwood, border, hedge, strong rope