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close this bookTrees and their Management (IIRR, 1992, 195 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentMessage
View the documentProceedings of the workshop
View the documentList of participants
View the documentCurrent program thrusts in upland development
View the documentTrees and their management
View the documentSustainable agroforest land technology (Salt-3)
View the documentOutplanting seedlings
View the documentTree pruning and care
View the documentBagging of young fruits
View the documentEstablishing bamboo farms
View the documentPhilippine bamboo species: Their characteristics, uses and propagation
View the documentGrowing rattan
View the documentGrowing anahaw
View the documentGrowing buri
View the documentShelterbelts
View the documentBank stabilization
View the documentAssessing the usefulness of indigenous and locally adapted trees for agroforestry
View the documentA guide for the inventory, identification and screening of native plant species with potential for agroforestry
View the documentFruit trees for harsh environments
View the documentCitrus production
View the documentJackfruit production
View the documentMango production
View the documentMiddle to high understory shade tolerant crops
View the documentLow understory shade-tolerant crops
View the documentConserving available fuelwood

Middle to high understory shade tolerant crops

The species can grow in the understory of taller tree species. They occupy the middle to high understory. Although they are shade-tolerant, they still need some light to penetrate the canopy (about 50 percent shade/light).

TABLE 16. SPECIES DESCRIPTION.

SCIENTIFIC NAME

COMMON NAME

HEIGHT (ft.)

USES

Acacia meamsii

Black wattle

6-20

Fuelwood poles, green manure, tannin erosion control, soil improvement

Albizzia lebbek

Langil

up to 30

Fuelwood timber, fodder, soil improvement

Alnus nepalensis


up to 30

Fuelwood timber, fodder, soil improvement

Annona muricata

Guyabano

5-9

Fruit

Averrhoa bilimbi

Kamias

2-12

Fruit

Bixa orellana

Achuete

2-8

Fruit (cosmetics dye), live fence

Calamus merillli and many other species

Rattan

up to 50

Furniture, fiber

Calliandra calothyrsus

Calliandra

4-10

Fuelwood, fodder, erosion control, soil improvement, bee forage

Casuarina equisetifolia

Agoho

4-10

Fuelwood, fodder, erosion control, soil improvement bee forage

Coffea spp.

Kafe

4-5

Fruit (coffee beans), fuelwood

Desmodium gyroides

Karikut- rikut

1-4

Fodder, soil improvement, erosion control

Flemingia macrophylla

Flemingia

2-3

Soil imp row meet, erosion control

Lancium sp.

Lanzones

5-9

Fruit

Livistona rotundifolia

Anahau Fan palm

15-20

Fiber, food (fruit, buds, shoots), small timber

Musa textilis

Abaca

1.54

Fiber

Musa spp. Var saba

Saba

1.5-4

Fruit

Pithecellobium dulce

Kamachile

18-20

Fruit, fuelwood, small timber, fodder, soil improvement, fencing

Psidium guajava

Bayabas fuelwood

3-10

Fruit, erosion control

Theobroma cacao

Cacao

5-8

Fruit (chocolate)

TABLE 17. SPECIES REQUIREMENT.

Species name

Shade

Climatic

Elevation

Soils


Tolerance¹

Adaptability²



Acacia meamsii

M

WD, PW

100-2500m

Deep fertile soils, sandy loams, shale or slate derived neutral to acid soils

Albizzia lebbek

S

WD, PD

Up to 1400m

Highly adaptable including saline soils; alkaline to neutral soils

Alnus nepalensis

H

WD, PW

1000-3000m

Deep loamy acid to neutral soils; also tolerates steep, rocky eroded sites

Annona muricata

M

WD, PW

Up to 1000m

Suited to most soils, but does not tolerate waterlogging

Averrhoa bilimbi

S-M

WD, PW

Up to 500m

Needs well-drained soil, pH can be neutral to alkaline

Bixa orellana

S

WD, PW

Up to 800m

Adaptable, but prefers moist, deep, loamy soil

Calamus merillii

H

PW



Calliandra calothyrsus

S

WD

250-1500m

Adaptable to wide range of site conditions, including acid soils

Casuarina equisetifolia

S

WD, PD

Up to 500m

Thrives on sandy soils, coastal dunes

Coffea spp.

M

WD, PW

Up to 750m

Needs deep, well drained, acid to alkaline soils, but does well on day soils

Desmodium gyroides

M

WD,PD

Up to 1000m

Tolerates infertile soils, adaptable to acid or alkaline soils and can tolerate water logging

Flemingia macrophylla

S-M

WD

Up to 2000m

Adaptable to wide range of soils and can be grown on infertile or heavy clay soils

Lancium spp.

H

WD, PW

Up to 800m

Prefers moist, fertile, medium textured, slightly acidic soil with good drainage and high organic matter content

Livistona rotundifolia

H

WD, PD

Low to medium elevation


Musa textilis

M

PW

Up to 1600m

Deep, friable, fertile loam with good drainage: tolerates pH from acid to alkaline

Musa spp. var saba

S

WD, PW

Up to 1800m

Prefers well-drained soils, but can also tolerate heavy clays

Pithecellobium dulce

S-M

WD, PD

Up to 1800m

Prefers well-drained soils, but can also tolerate heavy clays

Psidium guava

M

WD, PD

Up to 1500m

Highly adaptable

Theobroma cacao

S

PW

Up to 700m

Prefers soil with good moisture retention, but welt drained; does not last on clay loam soil

1 Shade tolerance:

H = highly shade-tolerant;
M = moderately shade-tolerant;
S=sibhtly shade-tolerant

2 Climatic adaptability:

WD = with distinct wet and dry seasons
PW = pronounced wet season;
PO = pronounced dry season