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close this bookTrees and their Management (IIRR, 1992, 195 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentMessage
View the documentProceedings of the workshop
View the documentList of participants
View the documentCurrent program thrusts in upland development
View the documentTrees and their management
View the documentSustainable agroforest land technology (Salt-3)
View the documentOutplanting seedlings
View the documentTree pruning and care
View the documentBagging of young fruits
View the documentEstablishing bamboo farms
View the documentPhilippine bamboo species: Their characteristics, uses and propagation
View the documentGrowing rattan
View the documentGrowing anahaw
View the documentGrowing buri
View the documentShelterbelts
View the documentBank stabilization
View the documentAssessing the usefulness of indigenous and locally adapted trees for agroforestry
View the documentA guide for the inventory, identification and screening of native plant species with potential for agroforestry
View the documentFruit trees for harsh environments
View the documentCitrus production
View the documentJackfruit production
View the documentMango production
View the documentMiddle to high understory shade tolerant crops
View the documentLow understory shade-tolerant crops
View the documentConserving available fuelwood

Low understory shade-tolerant crops

TABLE 18. SPECIES DESCRIPTION AND USE.

SPECIES NAME

COMMON NAME

SHADE

FORM

HEIGHT

USE



TOLERANCE




ARACEAE

Acorus calamus

Lubigan

M

Perennial herb

0.5-1.5 m

medicinal

Amorphophallus campanulatas

Pongapong

Perennial herb

0.5-1.5 m

livestock feed

(tuber), food (stem)

Amorphophallus variabilis (A. oncophyllus)


H

Perennial herb

1.0-2.5 m

medicinal (tuber)

Colocasia esculenta

Gabi, Gabing Tagalog

S

Perennial herb

1.0-2.0 m

food (tuber), stem and leaves

Xanthosoma nigrum

Gabing Cebu

S

Perrenial herb

1.0-2.0 m

food (tuber),

(Xanthosoma sagittifolium)




animal feed

(stem and leaf)

MARANTACEAE

Maranta arundinacea

Arrowroot, Uraro

H

Perrenial herb

0.5-1.0 m

food (tuber)

TACCACEAE

Tacca palmata


H

Perennial herb

0.75-1.25m


DIOSCOREACEAE

Dioscorea alata

Ubi

H

Climbing vine

3.0-10 m

food (tuber)

Dioscorea bulbifera


M

Climbing vine

3.0-10 m

food, medicinal

Dioscorea esculenta

Tugui

M

Climbing vine

3.0-5.0 m

food (tuber)

Dioscorea hispida


M

Climbing vine

5.0-20 m

food (tuber)

CANNACEAE

Canna edulis

Edible canna

H

Perennial herb

1.0-3.5 m

hod, fodder

BROMELIACEAE

Ananas comosus

Pinya

S

Perennial herb

0.5-1.25 m

food (fruit), fiber (leaves), animal feed (leaves).

ORCHIDACEAE

Vanilla fragrens (V. planifolia)

Vanilla, Banilya

H

Climbing vine

10-15 m

Spice (pod)

ZINGEBERACEAE

Amomum cardamomum

Indonesian cardamon

H

Perennial herb

1.5-3 m

medicinal, spice (root)

Boesenbergia pandurata


H

Perennial herb

0.25-0.8 m

medicinal, spice

(Kaempferia pandurata)




(root)


Catimbium malaccensis


H

Perennial herb

1.0 4 0 m

medicinal (root)

Costus spp


H

Perennial hero

0.5-3.0 m

medicinal (root)

Curcuma aeruginosa

Wild turmeric

H

Perennial herb

0.5-2.0 m

medicinal (root)

Curcuma domestica

Luyang-dilaw,

M

Perennial herb

1.0-1.5 m

medicinal, spice,

(C. longa)

Dilaw, Kunig




dye (root)

Curcuma heyneana


H

Perennial herb

2.0 m

medicinal (root)

Curcuma purpurascens


H

Perennial herb

0.5-1.5 m

medicinal, spice (root)

Curcuma xanthorizza


H

Perennial herb

0.5-2.0 m

medicinal dye (root)

C. zeodaria

Bolon, Tamahibak, H

Perennial herb

0.5-2.0 m

medicinal (root)



Barak, Tamo-karsi,






Luya-luyahan





Elettaria cardamomum

Cardamon

H

Perennial herb

2.0-3.0 m

spice

Hedychium coronarium

Kamya

M

Perennial herb

1.5-3.0 m

medicinal (root)

Kaempferia galanga

Duso, Dusog, Dusol, Galanga, Gisol, Gusol


Perennial herb

0.27 m

spice, medicinal (root)

Kaempferia rotunda


M

Perennial herb

0.5-1.0 m

medicinal (root)

Languas galanga


S

Perennial herb

1.5-2.5 m

medicinal, spice

(Alpinia galanca)





(root)

Zingiber aromaticum

Wild ginger

M

Perennial herb

1.84.0 m

medicinal. Spice (root)







Zingiber cassumunar


H

Perennial hero

1.5 m

medicinal (root)

Zingiber officinale Roxb. Luya

M

Perennial herb

0.5-1.0 m


medicinal, spice (root)

PIPERACEAE

Piper bete L

Ikmo, Gawed, Betel vine

H

Climbing vine

5.0-15 m

medicinal (leaves)

Piper cubeba

Forest pepper

H

Climbing vine

3.0-15 m

medicinal, spice (seed)

Piper nigrum

Black pepper, Paminta

M

Climbing vine

4.0-10 m

spice (seed)

Piper retrofactum (P longum)

Long pepper

H

Climbing vine


medicinal, spire (seed)

LEGUMINOSAE

Calapogonium mucunoides

Calapogonium

M

Climbing herb

0.3-0.5 m

green manure (leaves, stems)

Centrosema pubescens

Centrosema

M

Climbing herb

0.45 m

green manure, fodder (leaves)

Desmodium gyroides

Desmodium, Karikut-rikut

M

Small shrub

1.0-2.5 m

fodder

Dolichos lablab

Batao

S

Climbing herb

1.5-6.0 m

food (beans), buds.

Mucuna pruriens

Velvet beans,





M. derengiana

Kokoa





Pachyrrhizus erosus

Singkamas, Yam bean

M

Climbing herb


food (tuber)

Vigna unguiculata var. Sesquipedalis

Long beans, Sitao

S

Climbing herb


food (bean)

CONVOLVULACEAE

Merremia mammosa


H

Climbing herb


medicinal

LABIATAE

Coleus amboinicus

Oregano

S

Herb


medical (leaves)

Ocimum basilicum

Basil

S

Herb

0.3-0.6 m

medicinal

Orthosiphon aristatus (O. stamineus)

Balbas pusa

S

Herb

1.0-1.5 m

medicinal (root)

Pogostemon -cablin

Patchouli

H

Perennial shrub

1.0-1.5 m

essential oils (leaves)

GRAMINAE

Brachiaria decumbens


M

Perennial grass

0.25-0.65m

fodder (leaves)

Panicum maximum

Guinea grass

M

Perennial grass

0.8-2.5 m

fodder (leaves)

URTICACEAE

Boehmeria nivea

Ramie

M

Perennial herb

1.0-3.0 m

fiber (leaves)

CAPSICACEAE

Capsicum sp.

Sili

S

Annual

0.5-1.0 m

food (leaves); spice (fruit)

Note:

H = Highly shade-tolerant
M = Moderately shade-tolerant, and,
S = Slightly shade-tolerant.

TABLE 19: SPECIES REQUIREMENTS AND YIELDS

SPECIES NAME

COMMON NAME

ELEVATION

SOILS

RAINY

INPUTS

YIELDS





SEASON LENGTH (mos)



ARACEAE

Acorus calamus

Lubigan

< 2000

Clay loam

9-12

L

3000kg/ha

Amorphophallus campanulatas

Pongapong

< 800

Sandy team

4 5-9

L


Amorphophallus variabilis (A. oncophyllus)


< 700

Sandy loam

6-9

M

2.5kg/tuber

Colocasia esculenta

Gabi, Gabing Tagalog

< 1000

Adaptable

7.5-12

M

2-17 tons/ha

Xanthosoma nigrum (Xanthosoma sagittifolium)

Gabing Cebu

< 1000

Adaptable

7 5-9

L

32 500 kg/ha

MARANTACEAE

Maranta arundinacea

Arrowroot, Uraro

< 900

Sandy

9-12

L

75-37 tons/ha

TACCACEAE

Tacca palmata


< 900

Sandy

7.5-9



DIOSCOREACEAE

Diosconea alata

Ubi

< 800

Loamy clay

7.5-12

M

10-35 tons/ha

Dioscorea bulbifera


< 800

Loam, clay

9-12

M

0.5 kg/tuber

Dioscorea esculenta

Tugui

< 700

loam

7 5-12

M



Dioscorea hispida

< 850

Humus

6-9

M


CANNACEAE

Canna edulis

Edible canna

< 2000

Rich in

6-9

M

18 - 38 tons/ha

BROMELIACEAE

Ananas comosus

Pinya

< 1000

Adaptable

7.5-10.5

M

38-75 kg/ha

ORCHIDACEAE

Vanilla fragrens (V. planifolia)

Vanilla, Banilya

400-800

Rich in humus

7.5-10.5

H

800 kg/ha

ZINGIBERACEAE

Amomum cardamomum

Indonesian Cardamon

300-1500

Humus

7.5-10.5

M


Boesenbergia pandurata


< 700

Calcareous

6-9

M


(Kaempferia pandurata)







Catimbium malaccensis


< 1500

Clay

6-9

M


Costus spp


<1000

Fertile

9-12

L


Curcuma aeruginosa

Wild turmeric

400-700

Adaptable

6-9

L


Curcuma domestica Val.

Luyang dilaw,

< 2000

Clay team

7.5-9

13


(C. longa)

Dilaw, Kunig




35,000 kg/ha


Curcuma heyneana


< 750

Adaptable

6-9

L


Curcuma purpurascens


< 1000

Adaptable

6-9

L


Curcuma xanthorizza


< 750

Adaptable

7.5-10.5

L


C. zeodaria

Bolon, Tamahibak Barak, Tamo-karsi Luya-luyahan

< 1000

Clay

6-9



Elettaria cardamomum

Cardamon

< 1500

Rich humus

9-12

H

100-350 kg/ha

Hedychium coronarium

Kamya

< 2000

Deep, rich

5-12

L

5.7 tons/ha

Kaempferia galanga

Duso Dusog, Dusol, Galanga, Gisol, Gusol

80-600

Sand, clay

7.5-12

L


Kaempferia rotunda


< 750

Clay

9-12

L


Kaempferia rotunda


< 750

Clay

9-12

L


Languas galanga (Alpinia galanga)


< 1200

Loose, fertile

7.5-10.5

M


Zingiber aromaticum

Wib ginger

< 1000

Clay

9-12

M


Zingiber cassumunar


< 1300





Zingiber officinale Roxb.

Luya

250900

fertile

9-12

H

30,000 kg/ha

PIPERACEAE

Piper betel L

Ikmo, Gawed, Betel vine

< 700

Clay

6-10.5

L

Variable

Piper cubebe

Forest pepper

< 400





Piper nigrum

Black pepper, Paminta

< 1000 alluvium

Rich

9-12

H


Piper retrofactum (P. longum)

Long pepper

< 600

Sandy

6-9



LEGUMINOSAE

Calapogonium mucunoides

< 700

Adaptable

7.5-12



6000 kg/ha

Centrosema pubescens

Centrosema

< 300

Adaptable

7.5-12

L


Desmodium gyroides

Desmodium, Karikut-rikut

400-1000

Adaptable

9-12

M

2000 kg/ha

Dolichos lablab

Batao

< 500

Fertile

6-9

M

1400 kg/ha

Mucuna pruriens

Velvet beans






M derengiana

Kokoa






Pachyrrhizus erosus

Singkamas, Yam bean

< 500

Sandy loam

6-10.5

M

95 000 kg/ha

Vigna unguiculata var.

Long bean, Sitao sesguipedalis


Adaptable, well- drained neutral

drought- resistant

H


CONVOLVULACEAE

Merremia mammosa







LABIATAE

Coleus amboinicus

Oregano

< 250

H




Ocimum basilicum

Basil

450-110

Clay

7.5-10.5

M


Orthosiphon aristatus (O. stamineus).

Balbas pusa

<1000 o.m.

Rich in

7.5-12

L


Pogostemon cablin

Patchouli




M


GRAMINAE

Brachiana decumbens







Panicum maximum

Guinea grass






URTlCACEAE

Boehmeria nivea

Ramie

< 1200

Rich sand loam

9-12

H


CAPSICACEAE

Capsicum sp.

Sili


adaptable

up to 8 months

H


Note:

H = High;
M = Medium; and
L = Low.


COMMONLY-USED NITROGEN-FIXING TREE PROFILES

SAMPLE MATIX FORMAT 1.

SPECIES NAME

DESCRIPTION

SITE REQUIREMENTS

Scientific name: Acacia mangium Local name Mangium

Mangium grows to 25-30m in height. It is straight-boled and is usually branch-free up to about one half its height. It has a spreading crown and the dense foliage casts a heavy shade. Mangium has some similarities to Acacia auriculiformis but its phyllodes (flattened leaf-like petioles that replace the juvenile teevee) are longer and broader.

Mangium prefers a rainfall range of 1500 3000mm/yr but can withstand a minimum rainfall of 750-1000mm/yr. It can survive in areas with a prolonged dry season, but growth will be affected. It can be planted on a wide spectrum of soil typos and grows well even on infertile, eroded, rocky, shallow and acidic (down to pH4.5) soils. K prefers moist, well-drained soils and coos not tolerate flooding. Mangium is wind-firm and moderately light demanding. Seedlings and young saplings are killed by fire, but older tree are fire - resistant.

Scientific name: Acacia meamsii (A. decurrens var. Mollis) Local name: Black wattle

Black wattle is a tree usually 6-10m height, may reach 15-20m. It has a good, straight stem form and a narrow crown when grown in a closed stand, but develops a spreading crown if open-grown. It has light, feathery, dark green foliage.

Minimal rainfall requirements are 500-700mm/yr, but it grows well in much higher rainfall zones. It can only withstand 2 3 months of dry season. Black wattle grows best on sandy loams and shale or slate derived soils. It can also tolerate shallow and unproductive acid soils and on steep, unstable slopes. It does not survive well on alkaline or calcareous soils. It is a high elevation species, planted at 100-2500m in cold climate zones. Growth can be reduced if temperatures are too warm. It is moderately shade-tolerant, but can also be grown in full sun.

Scientific name: Albizia lebbek Local name: Langil

Langil grows to be a 30m single-stemmed tree with a large spreading crown, but a is also managed as a multistemmed shrub. It forms a It is suited for areas areas 500-2500mmiyr straight bole if grown in a closed stand, but a develops a low, spreading crown if open- grown. It can be easily recognized by its numerous paper-skinned pods that rattle in the wind.

Langil is especially suited to dry areas and d can withstand a dry season up to 6 months. rainfall. It tolerates wide range of sites including both acid and alkaline soils and saline soils. On highly eroded sites, it may require more intensive safe preparation and maintenance. It can grow in full sun or partial shade and a develops fire resistance with age.

Scientific name: Alnus nepalensis Local name: Alder

Alder can grow to be a large tree, 10-30m in height. It has a spreading, deep, dense root system and a has a deep crown when grown under shade.

Alder requires a minimum of 800mm rainfall/yr and grows best in areas where rainfall is higher and evenly distributed. It is a high elevation species, thriving in a cool climate at 1000-3000m. It grows best in moist, deep, loamy soils, but it tolerates infertile, acid, poorly drained, steep, rocky and eroded soils. Alder is wind-firm and it and eroded soils. Alder is wind-firm and it can survive occasional flooding but not lengthy waterlogging nor extremely dry soils. It tolerates shade well.

Scientific name: Cajanus cajan Local name: Kadios, Pigeon pea

Kadios is a small tree or shrub 1-5m tall. Its form highly variable, but usually described as shrubby.

Kadios is an important crop plant in dry to moist climates. It is drought-hardy and tolerates up to 6 months dry season, with a rainfall range of 500-2500mm/yr. It is widely adaptable as to soil conditions and can be planted up to 1000m. It does not tolerate waterlogging and requires full exposure to sunlight for fruiting.

Scientific name: Desmodium rensonii
Local name: Rensoni

Rensoni is an erect shrub.

Rensoni grows well in moist areas with even rainfall distribution and it also shows very good drought-tolerance. It is able to grow on acid soils. Probably best adapted to lower elevations of the uplands.

Scientific name: Flemingia macrophylla
Local name: Flemingia

Flemingia is a shrub, attaining 2-3m in height. It has a deep root system and produces dense foliage. It looks somewhat similar to Kadios, but does not produce edible beans.

Flemingia is moderately drought-tolerant, but requires at best 1100mm/yr rainfall and not longer than 6 months of dry season.

Scientific name: Leucaena diversifolia
Local name: Acid ipi-ipil

Acid ipil-ipil is a small tree up to 18m in height with usually good but sometimes shrubby form. Its appearance is very similar to that of Leucaena leucocephala, but Acid Ipil-ipil's flowers are pink rather than white and it can also be differentiated by the leaf rachis which does not have button-like glands.

Acid Ipil-ipil grows well in a humid to dry climate with a minimum rainfall of 500mm/yr and up to 8 months, dry season. Growth is better in higher rainfall zones. Acid Ipil-ipil gets its name from the fad that it tolerates acid soils somewhat better than L. leucocephala. It is also more productive at higher elevations than giant and native ipil ipil, with best growth up to 1000m, but a can be planted up to 1500m. It is strongly light demanding.

SAMPLE MATRIX FORMAT 2.

CHARACTERISTICS


SPECIES





Mangium

Black wattle

LangiI

Alder

Kadios

Height

25-30m

Average 6-10; up to 15-20m

15-30m

15-30 cm variable

1-5 m

Stem form

Straight

Poor

Often poor, but varies with stand density


Highly

Crown form

Spreading dense foliage

Narrow or spreading, depending on stand density

Spreading

Deep crown when grown under shade


Annual rainfall






Optimum range

1500-3000mm

700-2000

700-2500



Minimum range

750-1000mm

500-700

500-600



Dry season length

3-4 months, but tolerates prolonged dry season

2-3 months

2-6 months

Prefers evenly distributed rainfall

Up to 6 months

Soil type

Tolerates wide range, hardy on infertile, rocky, or eroded soil

Prefers deep fertile soils, sandy loams, shale or slate derived soils

Tolerates wide range, including saline soils

Best in deep, loamy soils tolerates steep, rocky, eroded soils

Widely adaptable

Soil pH

Neutral to acid

Neutral to acid

Alkaline to acid

Acid to neutral


Soil drainage

Moist, well- drained soils, does not tolerate flooding

Moist but well drained soils

Free draining soils

Prefers moist soils, but tolerate poorly- drained sites

Does not tolerate water logging

Elevation

0-720m

100-2500m

0-1400

1000-3000m

Up to 1000m

Wind resistance

Wind-firm

-

-

Not wind firm


Fire Resistance

Older trees are fire-resistant

Fire resistant

Develops fire resistance with age



Shade tolerance

Moderately light demanding

Can grow in full sun or partial shade

Can grow in full sun or partial shade

Tolerates shade well

requires full sun for fruiting

PROPERTIES OF SOME FUELWOOD SPECIES



AGE AT FIRST





SCIENTIFIC NAME

COMMON NAME

FUELWOOD HARVEST (YEARS)

CHARCOAL QUALITY

SPROUTING AFTER CUTTING

OTHER USES REQUIREMENTS

SITE

Acacia auriculiformis

Japanese acacia

2-5

Good

Poor

Land rehabilitation furniture, pulp shade, N-fixing, roadside tree

Adaptable tolerates harsh sites, poor soil conditions, flooding, 4-6 months dry season, 4-600 m elevation

Acacia mangium

Mangium

2-5

Fair

Poor

Land rehabilitation, erosion control, N- fixing pulp, timber, firebreak

Tolerates infertile and acidic soil, rainfall 1500-3000 mm/year

Acacia meamsii

Black wattle

3-5

Good

Poor

N-fixing, tannin, poles, green manure, windbreaks

Grows well on shallow or poor acid soils

Albizia falcataria (Paraser- ianthes falcataria)

Moluccan

3

Good

Vigorous

Pulp, light industrial wood, coffee shade, green manure, N- fixing, ornamental tannin

Grows well on alkaline soils, does not tolerate prolonged drought, can tolerate 2-4 mo dry season if some rainfall occurs

Albizia lebbek

Langil

5-10

Good

Vigorous

Fodder, N fixing, medicinal shade for plantation crops; for pulp and paper

-Rainfall 500-2500, tolerates wide range of soils, 2-6 months dry season, adaptable but not suited for every graded sites.

Alnus nepalensis

Alder

3-5

Good

Vigorous (pollarding)

Erosion control, N- fixing, coffee and cacao shade, fodder, tannin

High elevations: 100-300m Tolerates infertile, acid soils

Calliandra calothyrus

Calliandra

2-3

Excellent

Vigorous

N-fixing, erosion control, land rehabilitation, green manure, bee forage, firebreaks, coffee shade, fodder

Optimum rainfall 2000-4000mm/yr but withstands less, tolerates dry season of 3-6 months and grows well on depleted soils and steep slopes elevation 250-800 m

Cassia siamea

Thailand shower

2-3

Good

Vigorous

Small timber (fumiture), fodder, soil improvement

Tolerates up to 6 months dry season with minimum rainfall 650 mm/yr. Prefers good sibs, but can grow on lateritic soil up to 800

Cassia spectabilis

Antsoan- dilau

3-5

Good

Vigorous

Ornamental

Tolerates dry season of at least 3 months, thrives on poor sites, including sandy and clay soils up to 300 m

Casuarina equisetifolia

Agoho

3

Excellent

Vigorous

Coffee shade, N-fixing, dune stabilization, live fencing, pulp

Tolerates diverse and difficult sites, coastal areas, limestone, 6-8 months dry season, does poorly on heavy clays

Eucalyptus camaldulensis


3-5

Good

Vigorous

Windbreaks, roadside tree, medical

Tolerates calcacerous, acid or saline sot 4-8 mo dry season

Gliricidia sepium

Madre de Cacao

2-3

Excellent

Vigorous

Coffee shade, green manure, N-fixing trellis tree, rat poison, fodder, insecticide

Highly adaptable, tolerates low soil fertility, tolerates long dry season, 6 months or more, but needs at least 1000 mm/yr rainfall, windfirm

Gmelina arborea

Yemane

3-4

Good

Vigorous

Pulp, light industrial wood, roadside trees, bee forage

Highly adaptable, tolerates acidic calcacerous or lateritic soils and 6 7 months dry season

Leucaena diversifolia

Acid Ipil-ipil

2-5

Good

Vigorous

Pulp, pules, N-fixing

500 mm/yr minimum rainfall with up to 8 months dry season, somewhat tolerant of acid soils (pH 5.0) up to 1000 m

Leucaena leucocephala

Ipil-ipil

2-5

Excellent

Vigorous

Timber, poles, fodder, N- fixing green manure

Tolerates 6 months dry season with best rainfall range 600-1700 mm/yr, does not tolerate acid soils, elevation to 500 m

Melia azedarach

Paraiso

5


Vigorous

Tools and implements, pulp insecticide

Adaptable to various soils, tolerates 6 months dry season

Muntingia caladura

Datiles

2-3


Vigorous

Fruit, ornamental

Withstands 6 months dry season, but requires rainfall 100 mm/yr. Can tolerate sandy, limestone and saline soils up to windfirm

Piliostigma malabaricum

Alibang- bang

4-5

Good

Vigorous

Leaves used to season foods, medicinal uses

Requires distinct dry season, tolerates 6 months dry drought and dry rocky sites

Pinus kesiya

Benguet pine

20

Poor

No

Timber

Rainfall 1000 2000 mm/yr with 2-6 months dry season, grows on poor acid soils at 450-2900 m

Pithecello- bium duke

Kamachile

34

Good

Vigorous

Construction poles, fodder, fruits, N-fixing,

Adapts to a variety of soil conditions and 8 months dry erosion season control, live fencing, bee forage, medicinal use

Psidium guajava

Bayabas

3-5

Good

Vigorous

Fruits, fire wood, medicinal

adapts to a variety of soil condition

Samanea saman (Albizia saman)

Raintree

34

Good

Vigorous

Timber, craftwood fodder, roadside tree

Rainfall 600-2500 mm/yr with dry season up to 6 months, prefers good soils but can grow on poor acid soils up to 500-700 m

Syzygium cumin)

Duhat

2-5

Good

Vigorous

Poles, light construction, guitars, fruits, medicinal use, roadside tree, live fencing, ornamental

Can grow on variety of sites, including shallow, rocky soils if rainfall sufficient. Prefers distinct dry season tolerates 6-7 months drought

Tamarindus indica

Tamarind

5

Excellent

Vigorous

Fruit, timber roadside tre shade, food seasoning (fruits and extract)

Very drought resistant, prefers deep soils, but adapted to wide range of sites, including sandy and rock soils

Trema orientalis

Anabiong

3-6

Good

Vigorous

Pulp, poles coffee shade, fruits, fodder, tannin

Tolerates poor soils and 6 months dry season, but prefers humid climate