Cover Image
close this bookRegenerative Agriculture Technologies for the Hill Farmers of Nepal: An Information Kit (IIRR, 1992, 210 p.)
close this folderNatural resources and their enhancement
View the documentOptimum Use of Marginal Land with Sgroforestry System
View the documentMultipurpose Tree Species and Their Uses
View the documentLive Fence: A Multipurpose Living Structure
View the documentTree Seed Collection
View the documentThe Forest and its Many Uses
View the documentBamboo Propagation and Management
View the documentThe Use and Conservation of Traditional Medicine Plant Resources
View the documentEthno-Veterinary Drugs: Reported Use from the Central Development Region
View the documentUnderutilized Food Crop Resources in the Midhills of Nepal
View the documentWhy Bee keeping? The Role of Bees in pollination
View the documentIntermediate Beekeeping in Nepal
View the documentImproved Terracing for Soil Conservation on Hill Farms
View the documentSmall Ponds for Water Conservation
View the documentRunoff Diversion (Mal Tarkaure) for Landslide Control
View the documentPlanning Erosion Control Measures
View the documentUnderstanding the Environment to Determine Possible Local Solutions to Soil Erosion
View the documentGully Stabilisation

Runoff Diversion (Mal Tarkaure) for Landslide Control

Runoff diversion (Mal Tarkaure) for landslide control

Gullies and landslides pose threats to sloping farms. Gullies tear away the cultivated terraces, and landslides take away the terraces either from the bottom or the sides. The reason for gully formation and landslides is generally poor runoff management.

During the rainy season, water collected in the house yard flows down to the terraces causing rills. When not taken care of in time, the rill becomes deeper, forming a gully which can further result in landslides. This process also takes place when the runoff water is thrown to a side of the farm carelessly. To avoid such problems, well-planned runoff diversions channels should


Every household should have a small runoff diversion channel of about 2 ft wide and 1 ft deep. Generally, the main diversion is also a trail that is almost in level with the contour. The small diversion channels coming from the households joins this trail-cum-main drain. Therefore, the main drain provides access for runoff diversion for the community as a whole. The main drain can be several hundred meters long, ending in a small stream or a safe place. The effected community should be involved while making such layouts.


· Generally, the diversion channel can be constructed on hard ground. Otherwise, the channel can be paved with rocks or planted with grasses so that the concentrated flow of the run cannot scour the channel, causing erosion.

· The sides of the drain should be planted with shrubs and trees. Generally, farmers plant both thorny shrubs and fodder trees.


Maintenance measures have to be carried out each year. The channel needs to be cleaned so that the run-off water does not get blocked and cut slopes on the lower terraces. When the channel breaks or gets cut, it should be quickly fixed with rock and clay works, and shrubs and trees planted immediately. Community efforts are necessary to maintain the main drain and should be given the responsibility of carrying this out. It should be noted, however, that increase in forest cover in non-cultivated areas reduces runoff, eventually reducing maintenance needs.