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close this bookRegenerative Agriculture Technologies for the Hill Farmers of Nepal: An Information Kit (IIRR, 1992, 210 p.)
close this folderNatural resources and their enhancement
View the documentOptimum Use of Marginal Land with Sgroforestry System
View the documentMultipurpose Tree Species and Their Uses
View the documentLive Fence: A Multipurpose Living Structure
View the documentTree Seed Collection
View the documentThe Forest and its Many Uses
View the documentBamboo Propagation and Management
View the documentThe Use and Conservation of Traditional Medicine Plant Resources
View the documentEthno-Veterinary Drugs: Reported Use from the Central Development Region
View the documentUnderutilized Food Crop Resources in the Midhills of Nepal
View the documentWhy Bee keeping? The Role of Bees in pollination
View the documentIntermediate Beekeeping in Nepal
View the documentImproved Terracing for Soil Conservation on Hill Farms
View the documentSmall Ponds for Water Conservation
View the documentRunoff Diversion (Mal Tarkaure) for Landslide Control
View the documentPlanning Erosion Control Measures
View the documentUnderstanding the Environment to Determine Possible Local Solutions to Soil Erosion
View the documentGully Stabilisation

Live Fence: A Multipurpose Living Structure

Living fences are lines of trees or shrubs planted on farm boundaries or on the borders of home compounds, pastures, ffelds or animal enclosures. Living and live fences are the same thing -the two terms are used interchangeably.

PURPOSE AND FUNCTION

Their primary purpose is to control the movement of animals or people. Beside their main function - to control human and animal movement - live fences may provide fuelwood, fodder and food, act as wind breaks, enrich the soil, provide bee forage, provide shade and control dust.

Live fences tend to be considerably less expensive than fences made of purchased materials, such as wood, metal or stone.

ESTABLISHING AND MAINTAINING A LIVE FENCE

It is important that the young live fence tree/shrub be protected with temporary man-made structures for at least during the first few years until they are tall and thick enough to withstand browsing livestock and to serve their barrier function. Once the live fence is established, the temporary manmade structure, as for example barbed wire fence, can be reutilized to establish another live fence.

As the trees and shrubs grow, they must be pruned, usually on an annual basis. Otherwise, they may take up too much space or cast too much shade on adjacent crops.

Living fences should not compete with adjacent crops or pasture grasses: species with competitive rooting systems, which are aggressive, sprouting or self-seeding or which produce growth-inhibiting chemical substances or toxins, should be avoided.

Many different tree species are used for live fence, depending on the ecological zone, availability of stock and the specific needs of farmers. The most common useful species in Nepal are Tanki (bauhinia purpuria), Sisoo (dalbergia sisoo), Ml Kanda, different species of cactus etc. Ipil-Ipil was planted extensively in farms and live fences during the last decades, but due to severe attack by psyllid (a tiny insect), its extensive planting is reduced.

Prepared by the INSTITUTE FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE IN NEPAL (INSAN)

SOME SPECIES COMMONLY USED IN NEPAL AS LIVE FENCING AND HEDGEROWS

NEPALI NAME

BOTANICAL NAME

COMMENTS/OTHER USES

Acacia

Acacia auriculiformis

bee forage, fuelwood, green manure

Khayer

Acacia catechu

timber. fuelwood, Paan ingredient

Babul

Acacia nilotica

fodder and fuelwood

Ainselu

Rubus ellipticus

fruiting shrub

Arile kanda

Caesalpinia decapetala

fuelwood

Armalito

Hippophae salicifolia

medicine and fuelwood

Ashare

Lagerstroemia pariflora

ornamental and timber

Ashuro

Adhatoda vasica

green manure and mediciine

Bhakki amilo

Rhus javanica

fodder and fuelwood

Bainsh

Salix spy.

fodder and wood products

Bakaino

Melia azadirach

fuelwood and insectory plants

Bans

Dendrocalamus spp.

construction, edible fodder and windbreak

Bararnase phul

Bougainvillea spp.

thorny ornamental vines

Batule pat

Cissampelos pareira

vine used for fibre and medicine

Base gano

Boschniakia himalaica

medicine

Bhainsi Kanda

Rosa brunonii

fodder

Bhimsen pati

Budllleja asiatica

religious significance and medicine prickly

Bhokre

flex doniana

leaves, fodder

Boksi ghans

Mimosa rubicaulis

thorny shrub, medicine

Cassia

Cassia siamea

fuel, livestock bedding, firebreak

Ghangharu

Pyracantha crenulata

walking sticks

Chutro

Berberis aristata

thorny shrub, berries and medicine

Chutro

Berberis asiatica

thorny shrub, berries and medicine

Dabdabe

Garuga pinnata

fodder and fence post

Dangdinge

Brassaioysis palmata

fodder

Dhaincha

Sesbania sesban

green manure, fuelwood and fiber

Ghiu kumari

Aloe variegata

medicine

Gulaf

Rosa sericea

thorny ornamental

Gunyali

Elaeagnus latifolia

thorny shrub, edible fruits

Hade bayer

Zizyphus incurva

edible fruit and fuelwood

Hatti ghaans

Napier spp..

fodder and thatch

Ipil-ipil

Leucaena leucocephala

fuel, fodder and green manure

Jamane rnandro

Mahonia napaulensis

prickly leaves, berries, medicine

Jangli gulaf

Rosa macrophylla -

fruiting shrub

Jhule phul

Holinskioldia sanguinea

ornamental and fuelwood

Kagati

Citrus aurantifolia

edible and bee forage

Kanike phul

Ligustrum indicum

ornamental

Kimbu

Morus spp.

edible fruits, fodder

Kudzu

Pueraria spp.

fodder, edible leaves, green manure

Kukur daino

Smilax menispermoides

creeping vine, medicine

Lahare pipal

Populus deltoides

timber, fuelwood and fodder

Masino kanda

Lantana camera

fence construction

Mayal

Pyrus pashia

fruits and medicine

Magyar panti

Thuja orientalis

timber

Nigalo

Arundinaria spp..

weaving

Nil kanda

Duranta repens

thorny shrub

Phalaydo

Enythrina arborescens

thorny leguminous shrub

Phusre ghans

Indigofera pulchella

fuelwood and green manure

Rahar dal

Cajanus cajan

edible, fuel, green manure

Sajiwon

Japtropa curcas

fuelwood and medicine

Sati bayaer

Rhus parviflora

fruiting shrub, fodder, medicine

Sihundi

Euphorbia royleana

thorny shrub, medicine

Simali

Murraya paniculata

ornamental shrub

Simali

Vitex negundo

wood products

Siris

Albizzia spp.

fuel, fodder, bee forage and green manure

Sisnu

Urtica dicioa

edible leaves and medicine

Sisau

Dalbergia sissoo

timber, fuel, green manure

Suedi

Opuntia vulgaris

thorny cactus

Tanki

Bauhinia purpuria

fodder, fuel, green manure

Koiralo

Bauhinia veriagata

fodder, fuel green manure and edible flowers