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close this bookRegenerative Agriculture Technologies for the Hill Farmers of Nepal: An Information Kit (IIRR, 1992, 210 p.)
close this folderLivestock and fodder
View the documentFeed Shortages and Seasonality Issues of Livestock in the Hills
View the documentSilage and Crop Residues as Fodder Supplement
View the documentFodder Sources from Trees and Shrubs of Nepal
View the documentExotic Fodder Species as Potential Alternatives to Ipil-Ipil
View the documentPropagation of Fodder Grasses
View the documentPropagation of Fodder Trees
View the documentGrasses and Fodder Trees for Terrace Risers
View the documentNB-21 Grass on Terrace Risers and Bunds
View the documentSalt Licks for Livestock
View the documentThe Large Leafed Mulberry: A Promising Nutritive Fodder for Scarcity Period
View the documentManagement of Breeding Pigs
View the documentUse of Sihundi for the Treatment of roundworms in Pigs
View the documentSmall-Scale Goat Raising
View the documentAngora Rabbit for Wool Production

Grasses and Fodder Trees for Terrace Risers

Women in the midhills of Nepal spend a considerable amount of their time collecting fodder for cattle and other animals. Animal husbandry is an integral part of any farm and cattle are valuable asset to farmers. Thus, their feed and health are given a lot of attention. On every farmland where there are terraces, the risers are mostly underused. Grass, if planted, is sparse and not very productive The risers between terraces can be utilized for planting grass and fodder trees to supplement the fodder for cattle and other animals. Moreover, this will help save women's time and labour which would otherwise be spent on going to the forest or elsewhere to collect fodder for the livestock.


Figure

BENEFITS OF PLANTING GRASSES AND FODDER TREES ON RISERS

· Availability of fodder and grasses near the home.

· Strengthening of the risers.

· Reduction of soil erosion.

· Provision of fuelwood from the pruning of the fodder trees.

· Provision of other useful items, e.g., babio can be used to make ropes for cattle and other animals, etc.

· Efficient use of areas that would otherwise be left unused.

GRASSES

Depending on the species of grass, plant grass seedlings at regular intervals on the risers leaving space for vegetative growth. Leaving the two upper and lower levels of the risers alone, concentrate on the center section, gradually moving out towards the upper and lower levels.

Grass species which can be planted on the risers:

Common name

Botanical name

Local name

Part to be planted

Elephant grass

Pennisetum purpureum

Napier (Ukhu ghans)

suckers, stem

Desmodium grass

Desmodium intortum

Desmodium

seed, vegetative

Molasses grass

Melinis minutilflora

Chuwa

seed, vegetative

Setaria grass

Setaraia anceps

Setaria

seed, vegetative

Broom grass

Thysanolaena maxima

Amriso (kucho ghans)

sucker

NB-21 grass

-

NB-21

slips

Note: Napier can be harvested 4-5 times a year. The higher frequency of harvest increases the yield and keeps the grass under control. It must be planted together with other varieties of grasses, otherwise, the root network can harbour rat nests. Napier should be replanted after 4 to 5 years to maintain the condition of risers. Mixture of green leaf desmodium with setaria has been successfully demonstrated in various parts of the hills. Grass suckers can be planted at intervals of 6"-12" between rows and 6"-9" within a single row.

FODDER TREES

Fodder tree species, such as lower to medium-height leguminous trees and evergreen, as well as winter deciduous species, can be planted at a spacing of 4-5m intervals in a single row on the upper part of the terrace risers just below the bunds.

Fodder species (trees, shrubs) which can be planted on the risers:

Common name

Local name

Botanical name

Part to be planted

Camel's Foot

Tanki

Bahunia porpurea

seed

Coral Tree

Faledo

Erythrina variegata

seed, cuffing

Monkey Jack

Badahar

Artocarpus lakoocha

seed, cutting

Chinaberry

Bakaino

Melia azediarach

seed, cutting, root cutting

Mulberry

Kimbu

Morus alba

cutting,

-

Chuletro

Brassiopsis hainla

seed, cutting

Kokko

Rato Siris

Albezzia julibrison

seed

Wild Himalayan Cherry

Painyu

Prunus Cerasoids

seed

-

Pakhuri

Ficus glaberrina

cutting

-

Bedulo

Fious subincisa

seed

-

Raikhanyo

Ficus semicordata

seed

Note: If fodder trees are planted at the onset of monsoons, it saves the problem of watering the plants.

AVAILABILITY

The seeds of the above-discussed grasses and fodder are available at respective District Forest Offices and also from the Nepal Agroforestry Foundation (P.O. Box 916), the Lumle Agricultural Centre and the Pakhribas Agricultural Centre.