Cover Image
close this bookSoil and Water Conservation (SWC) Technologies and Agroforestry Systems (IIRR, 1992, 171 p.)
close this folderOrganic fertilizer sources:
View the document1. Basket Composting
View the document2. Fertilizer from Livestock and Farm Wastes
View the document3. Liquid Fertilizer from Leguminous Trees
View the document4. Use of Green Manures

2. Fertilizer from Livestock and Farm Wastes

MATERIALS

Dried rice straw/rice stubbles, grass clippings, coffee hulls, sawdust, etc. These materials help prevent nutrient loss. They contain residual plant food of their own, adding to the overall nutrient value of the compost.


Feeding animals

BEDDING METHOD

1. Chop or shred the materials (except coffee hulls and sawdust) to make them easier to spread and later on easier to decompose.


Cutting plants

2. Spread a six-inch layer of litter bedding over the floor space. Allow manure and urine to accumulate.


6 inches of litter bedding

3. Three to four days after the bedding materials are fully soaked with urine, mix them so as to incorporate the manure. Remove the bedding and store it in a pit or a pile fully covered to conserve the nutrients. Collected bedding material can also be used in preparing liquid fertilizer. The compost is ready for use in one and a half months or earlier.


Collection and mixing of bedding materials


Liquid fertilizer preparation

4. Provide fresh bedding materials as in #2.

TECHNOLOGICAL PROFILE

· A feedlot cable with an initial weight of about 150 kg would produce a total of 2.23 tons of fresh manure over a fattening period of 180 days.

· On the average, a cattle or a carabao excretes fresh manure equivalent to about 7.5 percent of its body weight.

· Manure - By wise management, animal manure can return to the soil 70 percent of N. 75 percent of P and 80 percent of K.

· Urine - Excess nitrogen from the digested protein is excreted in the urine as urea in cattle and goats.

· Fifty percent of the value of the waste is contained in the urine.

· Urine contains 2/3 of the N and 4/5 of the K discharged by an animal.

· Elements in urine are more quickly available because they are in solution.

· Urine is also an especially good activator for converting crop residues to humus.

NOTE:

The amounts of fresh excrement produced by farm animals are subject to wide variations, being governed by the kind of animal, its age, the amounts of food it eats, its activity and other factors. The amount produced annually per 1,000 pounds of live weight is given in the following table:

TABLE 6. AMOUNT OF EXCREMENT PRODUCED BY FARM ANIMALS.

SOURCE

FRESH EXCREMENT

LIQUID %

Cattle

12.6

85

Horse

5.8

66

Poultry

5.6

62

Sheep

5.9

66

Swine

13.2

85

TABLE 7. POUNDS OF NITROGEN, PHOSPHATE AND POTASH PER TON OF ANIMAL MANURE.

SOURCE

NITROGEN

PHOSPHATE

POTASH

Cattle

10.0

2. 7

7.5

Horse

14.9

4.5

13.2

Poultry

29.9

14.3

7.0

Sheep

23.0

7.0

21.7

Swine

12.9

7.1

10.9

On the average, a ton of cow manure has NPK values equivalent to 100 pounds of 2 12-3-9 chemical fertilizer. Similarly, horse manure averages 14-5-11, sheep and goat manure 19-7-20, hog manure 10-7-8 and chicken manure about 20-16-9. In addition, this manure will supply organic matter and trace elements.

References:

P.S. Faylon and M.R. Deriquito. Livestock Manure as Fertilizer: Waste Not, Want Not. J.F. Rodale. The Complete Book of Compost. The Encyclopedia of Organic Gardening. pp. 714-716. Nyle C. Brady. The Nature and Properties of Soils. 8th Edition (New York: MacMillan Publishing Co. 1974).