|Resettlement of Displaced Population - 1st Edition (DHA/UNDRO - DMTP - UNDP, 1995, 60 p.)|
|Part 4: Options of place|
In many repatriation exercises, displaced persons are aided by repatriation programs organized by governments and aid agencies. Agency-implemented repatriation programs are sometimes referred to as organized repatriation programs. (The terms spontaneous and organized are misleading, however, because family moves are usually planned rather than spontaneous and organized rather than ad hoc, an observation noted by Larkin, et al, 1991.) These agencies may arrange the return transportation, negotiate protection and provide entitlements for returning families during the early period of reintegration.
Agency-implemented repatriation programs have the advantage of being able to facilitate the movement of large numbers of people, and through negotiation, assure the availability of needed protection and assistance. Particularly when people are displaced outside their own country or displaced in large groups within their own country, "organized" repatriation programs are often essential and third parties, such as United Nations agencies, can play highly important roles.
Organized repatriation programs also have distinct disadvantages and risks. Through their reliance on implementing agencies, returnees are subjected to all the variables of management, politics and finance that influence agency action. It is also vital to note that involved organizations may foster dependency. The risk of dependency is related to the degree to which implementing agencies assume roles and make decisions that should be made by the returnees themselves. Another complicating factor concerns decisions made in the general interest of large groups which do not meet the needs of individual families. Whether or not dependency-related problems occur depends on the way repatriation programs are planned and implemented.
Q. Discuss the difference between "spontaneous" and "organized" repatriation.
Spontaneous repatriation occurs through self-initiated efforts while organized repatriations are agency-implemented.