Cover Image
close this bookEducational Handbook for Health Personnel (WHO, 1998, 392 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentObjectives of the Handbook
View the documentPreface
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentFor whom is this Educational Handbook intended?
View the documentHow to use the Handbook
View the documentIdentification of your needs as an educator
View the documentList of educational objectives
View the documentTheoretical background that will help you reach the educational objectives of the workshop
View the documentRecapitulative table of exercises proposed in the Handbook
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1: Priority health problems and educational objectives
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 2: Evaluation planning
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 3: The teaching-learning concept and programme construction
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 4: Test and measurement techniques
View the documentChapter 5: How to organize an educational workshop
View the documentChapter 6: Index and glossary
View the documentChapter 7: Bibliography
View the documentBack Cover

List of educational objectives

1. Educational objectives

1. Define the following terms: professional task, activities, functions, role, institutional objective; specific objective; domains of practical skills; communication skills and intellectual skills.

2. List the health problems in your own community in order of priority.*

3. Analyse the causes of these problems.*

4. Identify the parts of the system of which your establishment is a part and list the actors (organizations or people) who either utilize or collaborate with the health services.*

5. Define the professional functions of a member of the health team whom your teaching institution is responsible for training (general educational objectives) so as to deal with the health problems of society.*

6. Analyse a professional function (professional profile) by defining the various intermediate components (activities) making it up.*

7. Define a professional task and identify its components (domains of practical skills, communication skills and intellectual skills).*

8. Draw up a list of the specific educational objectives relating to a professional task, stating explicitly what you feel the student should be able to “do” after a given course of instruction (that he was not able to do previously) and corresponding to the domains of the communication skills or practical skills involved in this task.*

9. Taking a specific objective in a non-intellectual domain (i.e. practical or communication skills), define in the form of contributing educational objectives what theoretical knowledge you feel the student should possess if he is to attain that objective.*

10. Make a critical analysis of specific educational objectives (listed by a colleague), indicating in particular whether they include all the requisite elements (act, content, condition, criteria).*

2. Evaluation planning

11. Draw up a list of the possible reactions of colleagues in your faculty to the idea of having to define educational objectives derived from professional tasks and propose strategies for overcoming those reactions.*

12. Draw a diagram showing the relationship between evaluation and the other parts of the educational process.

13. Define the principal role of evaluation, its purpose and its aims.

14. Describe the difference between formative and certifying evaluation.

15. List the good and bad features of a test.

16. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of tests in current use.

17. Define the following terms: validity, reliability, objectivity, and describe the relationship that exists between them.

18. Choose an appropriate evaluation method (questionnaire, written examination, “objective” test (MCQ or short, open-answer question) or essay question, oral examination, direct observation, etc.) for measuring the students' attainment of a specific educational objective. Compare the alternatives in a specification table.*

19. Define (in the form of an organizational diagram) the organization of an evaluation system suitable for your establishment, and list the stages involved.


(a) the most important educational decisions you have to take;

(b) the data to be collected to provide a basis for those decisions;

(c) the aims of the system and subsystems in terms of decisions to be taken and the object of each decision (teachers, students, programmes).*

20. Identify obstacles to and strategies for improvement of a system of evaluating students, teachers and programmes.*

* Work in small groups is recommended for these objectives. Individual work will usually be appropriate for the others.

3. Programme construction

21. Explain the differences between “education”, “teaching” and “learning”, and describe the new trends in the teaching/learning system and the various learning situations.

22. Define the concept of relevance and list the stages in the construction of a programme.

23. Indicate the aims and general methods of teaching, list 10 conditions which facilitate learning on the basis of the list and evaluate a specific learning activity.

24. Specify at least two advantages and two disadvantages for each technique and medium used in teaching.

25. Select a teaching method that will make an educational objective easier to achieve. Compare the alternatives in a specification table.*

26. Construct a programme, using a specification table, or decide whether a programme or course needs revision.*

27. Construct a self-learning package or a didactic problem for problem-based learning.*

28. Define the role which, as a teacher, you would like to assume in order to motivate and facilitate the learning of students for whom you are responsible.*

29. Identify the obstacles liable to be encountered in setting up a curriculum for problem-based education that is geared to the acquisition of stalls and me health needs of the community, and describe strategies for overcoming them.*

4. Implementation of evaluation

30. Indicate the different elements that should be considered in the evaluation of a teaching programme.

31. Indicate the different elements that should be considered in the evaluation of the educational objectives of a teaching programme, learning materials and human resources.

32. Define the advantages and limitations of a system of evaluation of teaching by the students.*

33. Construct an observational rating scale and/or a practical test to evaluate the behaviour of a student in the domain of communication and/or practical skills.*

34. Propose a question for a written (open-book) examination of the “essay” type or a series of six short, open-answer questions and indicate the norms of performance permitting objective marking (marking table).

35. Draw up three multiple choice questions (MCQ) in the domain of intellectual skills - at least two of the objectives must measure an intellectual process superior to level 1 “simple recall” (either level 2 “interpretation of data” or level 3 “problem-solving”).*

36. Indicate the advantages and limitations of a programmed examination.

37. Define the following terms: prerequisite level test, pre-test, interval test, comprehensive pre-final; indicate their purpose and the stages at which they are set.

38. Explain the difference between a relative and an absolute criteria test.

39. Calculate the acceptable pass level for an MCQ examination and establish the scoring criteria and norms which permit determination of the passing grade of a mini-test (made up of the questions mentioned in objectives 33, 34 and 35).*

40. Do an item analysis of a question (calculate the difficulty index and the discrimination index and draw the relevant conclusions).

* Work in small groups is recommended for these objectives. Individual work will usually be appropriate for the others.