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close this bookThe Human Settlements Conditions of the World's Urban Poor (HABITAT, 1996, 233 p.)
close this folderV. Reaching the urban poor
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentA. The changing international policy context for urban development and shelter
View the documentB. The sites-and-services programme in Zimbabwe
View the documentC. Brazil: the FUNACOM programme in São Paulo
View the documentD. An evaluation of the Employees’ Housing Programme (EHP) in the Republic of Korea
View the documentE. India: An evaluation of a series of Slum Improvement Programmes
View the documentF. Conclusions: Assessing the experience of projects/programmes aimed at improving the human settlements conditions of the world’s urban poor


Following the overview of the incidence of urban poverty and trends in the human settlements conditions of the urban poor in developing countries, this chapter outlines the changing international policy context for urban development and shelter provision. It also presents a series of detailed case studies of recent shelter initiatives from Zimbabwe, Brazil, the Republic of Korea and India.1 These four case studies encompass a variety of approaches to the problem of providing housing for the poor and low-income groups. The Zimbabwean case study focuses on the recent sites-and-services programmes in Harare. The second example is the FUNACOM programme (“the municipal programme to support housing for low-income persons through self-management”), set up by the SPaulo local government in Brazil in 1989. The case study from the Republic of Korea involves an evaluation of an employees’ housing programme which was designed to provide 10,000 housing units during the 1990-1991 period. It was the forerunner for the current programme of 500,000 houses to be provided between 1992 and 1996 as outlined in the Republic of Korea’s Seventh Socio-Economic Development Plan. Finally, the case study from India is an evaluation of a series of Slum Improvement Programmes funded and administered by the Overseas Development Administration (ODA) of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, in partnership with the Government of India and various state governments. In the concluding section these programmes are assessed against the policy framework for human settlements development and the formulation of shelter strategies for low-income groups advocated by UNCHS (Habitat) and the World Bank.

1 These case studies draws heavily on Rakodi and Withers (1994), Zimbabwe; Denaldi (1994) and Guedes and Devecchi (1994), SPaulo; Jang (1994), the Republic of Korea; and Sundaram (1994), India.