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close this bookLeadership and Influence - Instructor Guide (FEMA-EMI, 1991, 281 p.)
Open this folder and view contentsPlan of Instruction February 1991
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentTarget Audience
View the documentInstructor Qualifications
View the documentGoal and Objectives
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentChanges in the Leadership & Influence Course
View the documentInstructional Methodology
View the documentClassroom Requirements and Equipment
View the documentCourse Materials
View the documentUnit Lengths
View the documentSample Agenda
Open this folder and view contentsLesson Plans

Instructional Methodology

As the instructor, you should set a tone for this session that clearly communicates the following information.

The course is designed to encourage maximum interaction between the instructors and participants and among the participants themselves.

Participants should compare what they know from their own experience with what is presented in instructor-led discussions on the concepts of leadership and influence.

In many cases, participants need not be concerned with correct or incorrect answers or with the expected outcome of any discussion or activity. This course demonstrates approaches and ideas that participants can, and should, modify to fit their own needs and circumstances. Emergency management is a process, not a product. As such, it must be approached with flexibility and thoughtful consideration of circumstances.

Consider the following general suggestions.

While this course is designed to encourage participant interaction, your own readiness to establish direction, context, and substance is essential for discussions to work well. Sometimes your initial line of questions will draw a blank, and you need to rephrase your questions so the group can contribute. At other times discussions may "strike a nerve" and take more time than planned. Watch time passage and remember that every point need not always be covered in detail; judge when a discussion does or does not require further time and attention. Your preparation to teach this course is critical and will require study beyond the notes and suggestions provided in the lesson plan.

Pacing this course to accommodate the interests and skills of the participants should be a paramount goal. While the material to be covered is extensive, the level of interest and skill demonstrated by the group should dictate your sense of timing and the speed with which you proceed through the activities and points of discussion.


All written course materials are found in one of two places--the Student Manual or the Instructor Guide.

The Student Manual contains a note-taking guide, activity worksheets, and a glossary.

The Instructor Guide refers to material in the Student Manual. It represents the complete course for instruction and is divided into units for ease of reference. Designed to facilitate the teaching process, it includes an explicit agenda with suggested timeframes, a checklist of course materials, and lesson plans with detailed directions for implementing course activities. Copies of student activity worksheets are included in corresponding sections of the IG.

The lesson plans provide a comprehensive guide to the progression of course topics and activities. However, these plans are not substitutes for your own pre-class preparation. Precise teaching directions under "Instructor Notes" provide guidance about implementing particular lesson plans. These notes include sample responses for discussion questions to help you understand the intent of the question. However, these are not the only "right" answers and are by no means complete lists of answers. Below are several suggestions for your preparation.

Carefully review all materials in the Student Manual and Instructor Guide. Make sure you have all materials and sufficient numbers of copies.

Ascertain ahead of time how many participants you will have and calculate the logistics required by class size.

Clearly understand both the teaching points to be made for each topic and the dynamics of each activity. Anticipate participant questions, and be prepared to answer them in class. Make sure you can clearly articulate instructions for each activity.

The course uses a combination of visuals (viewgraphs) and videotapes. Paper copies for the visuals are found in Appendix B of the Instructor Guide.

You should display flipcharts with results of the various instruments on the classroom walls. This approach allows participants to see the relationship between the different concepts. You also can use flipcharts to display participant answers, comments, or data results of activities. When recording participant comments on the flipchart, it sometimes helps to use two instructors--one writing responses and one guiding discussion. The facilitator can then keep eye contact with the class more easily.

Several viewgraphs are provided which list a number of points. You will find that class attention is focused more effectively on the point you are making if you cover the others with a sheet of paper, moving the paper down as you get to the next point.


One way to get a quick sense of the composition of your class and the state of mind with which they are entering it is to post flipchart paper with questions for students to answer during registration. For example, you can ask them to indicate whether they are coming primarily as "vacationers, adventurers, or prisoners" (prisoners are told they must attend), tell you from which part of the state they come (which will help you set up the exercises that call for geographical distribution), years of experience, or whatever else you find helpful. This will give you a "snapshot" of the class you can use during your introduction/orientation to the course.


Before beginning the actual course of instruction, take a few minutes to introduce yourself and other instructors or training personnel. An activity (with two options) is provided that introduces class participants; use one for classes where most people know each other and use the other option for classes where people are from different jurisdictions.


Assure participants at the outset of each day that you usually will take breaks in the morning and afternoon. Ultimately, it is up to you to decide at what times those breaks will be most appropriate; for example, you may wish to break for ten minutes every hour.