Improving Student Achievement in Mathematics (IAE - IBE - UNESCO, 2000, 48 p.) |

Students can learn both concepts and skills by solving problems. |

**Research findings**

Research suggests that students who develop conceptual understanding early perform best on procedural knowledge later. Students with good conceptual understanding are able to perform successfully on near-transfer tasks and to develop procedures and skills they have not been taught. Students without conceptual understanding are able to acquire procedural knowledge when the skill is taught, but research suggests that students with low levels of conceptual understanding need more practice in order to acquire procedural knowledge.

Research by Heid suggests that students are able to understand concepts without prior or concurrent skill development. In her research with calculus students, instruction was focused almost entirely on conceptual understanding. Skills were taught briefly at the end of the course. On procedural skills, the students in the conceptual-understanding approach performed as well as those taught with a traditional approach. Furthermore, these students significantly outperformed traditional students on conceptual understanding.

Mack demonstrated that students’ rote (and frequently faulty) knowledge often interferes with their informal (and usually correct) knowledge about fractions. She successfully used students’ informal knowledge to help them understand symbols for fractions and develop algorithms for operations. Fawcett’s research with geometry students suggests that students can learn basic concepts, skills and the structure of geometry through problem solving.

**In the classroom**

There is evidence that students can learn new skills and concepts while they are working out solutions to problems. For example, armed with only a knowledge of basic addition, students can extend their learning by developing informal algorithms for addition of larger numbers. Similarly by solving carefully chosen non-routine problems, students can develop an understanding of many important mathematical ideas, such as prime numbers and perimeter/area relations.

Development of more sophisticated mathematical skills can also
be approached by treating their development as a problem for students to solve.
Teachers can use students’ informal and intuitive knowledge in other areas
to develop other useful procedures. Instruction can begin with an example for
which students intuitively know the answer. From there, students are allowed to
explore and develop their own algorithm. For instance, most students understand
that starting with four pizzas and then eating a half of one pizza will leave
three and a half pizzas*. *Teachers can use this knowledge to help students
develop an understanding of subtraction of fractions.

Research suggests that it is not necessary for teachers to focus first on skill development and then move on to problem solving. Both can be done together. Skills can be developed on an as-needed basis, or their development can be supplemented through the use of technology. In fact, there is evidence that if students are initially drilled too much on isolated skills, they have a harder time making sense of them later.

References: |
Cognition and Technology Group, 1997; Fawcett, 1938; Heid, 1988; Hiebert & Wearne, 1996; Mack, 1990; Resnick & Omanson, 1987; Wearne & Hiebert, 1988. |