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close this bookEthnoveterinary Medicine in Asia - Ruminants (IIRR, 1994, 143 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentCollaborating organizations
View the documentParticipants and workshop staff
View the documentHow to use this manual
View the documentLack of appetite
View the documentFever
View the documentCoughs and colds
View the documentDiarrhea
View the documentDehydration
View the documentBloat
View the documentConstipation
View the documentPoisoning
View the documentInternal parasites: Stomach and gut worms
View the documentLiverflukes
View the documentTick infestation
View the documentScabies (mange)
View the documentLice
View the documentFungus infections of the skin
View the documentInfectious diseases
View the documentFoot rot
View the documentEye diseases
View the documentWounds
View the documentBleeding
View the documentSnake bite
View the documentSprains
View the documentDifficulty in urinating
View the documentHousing
View the documentFeeding
View the documentMineral deficiency
View the documentBreeding
View the documentPregnancy and birthing
View the documentCare of mother animals after birthing
View the documentCare of newborn
View the documentUdder infection
View the documentDecreased milk flow



· Body feels hot.
· Thirst: the animal drinks a lot of water.
· Animal does not urinate as much as usual.
· Hairs are raised.
· Appetite is decreased.
· Eyes are not shining (dull).
· Nose is dry.

Feel the animal's ear. If the ear is very hot, the animal is
sick and needs treatment.

Detect fever by holding the base of the ear.


Fever can occur during sudden changes in weather. Young animals are more susceptible.

Fever is caused mainly by viruses, bacteria or protozoa. It may also be due to sunstroke or poisoning. If the animal has any of the symptoms below, it may have one of the following diseases. Consider consulting a professional (a local expert development officer or veterinarian).

· Bloody, foul-smelling diarrhea (possibly rinderpest).
· Difficulty in breathing (pneumonia); if with snoring sound and bloat (hemorrhagic septicemia)
· Lameness, difficulty in eating (foot and-mouth disease)
· Very high fever, swelling all over the body (anthrax).
· Lameness, swelling of muscles in the thigh and shoulder (black quarter).
· Swelling of udder (mastitis)
· Red-colored urine (babesiosis).
· Groaning and grunting when moving, weakness, tiredness (lasts only 3 days) (ephemeral fever).
· Boils filled with water on body (pox).

Detecting fever


· Provide clean drinking water. Clean the surroundings.
· Provide fresh, clean food. Protect animals against bad weather.
· To prevent sunstroke, do not tie or graze the animals under the hot sun.


Any of the following treatments will help to reduce the fever. The dosages below are for cattle and buffaloes. Use half of the quantities for sheep, goats and calves. Use one quarter of the amounts for lambs and kids. Continue giving the treatment to keep the fever under control.

· Mix about 10 g of Swertia chirata (whole plant) with 100 g of molasses to make a thick paste. Apply the paste to the tongue and the roof of the mouth twice a day. (India. 1, 2, 3, 5)

· Prepare a paste of the root of Picrorhiza kurrooa and molasses as above. Use the same amounts and in the same way as above. (India. 1, 2, 3, 5)

· Boil a handful of Tamarindus indica leaves and ¼ kg of fruit pulp in ½ bucket of water for 15 minutes. Collect the fluid and give to the animals as the only source of drinking water. (Indonesia. 1, 2)

· Boil a handful of Eucalyptus globules leaves in 1 liter of water for 15 minutes. Give 1 liter as a drench twice a day. (India. 1, 2, 3, 4)

· Boil a handful of fresh neem leaves in 1 liter of water for 15 minutes. Give this amount as a drench twice a day. (India. 1, 2, 3, 4)

· Boil two handfuls of Vitex negundo leaves for 15 minutes in 1 liter of water. Give 1-2 cups of the liquid 3 times a day as a drench. (India, Philippines. 1, 2)

· Sponge animal with vinegar all over the body as often as possible. (Philippines. 1, 2)

· Boil a handful of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) leaves and bark in 3 liters of water for 30 minutes. Give 1 liter 3 times a day as a drench.

· Boil ½ g of the bark or wood of stems or node of Gardenia jasminoide5 in 5 liters of water for 15 minutes. Drench 2 liters per day, twice a day for 5 days.

Sponge animal with vinegar