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close this bookIndigenous Technology Knowledge for Watershed Management in upper North-West Himalayas of India (PWMTA, 1998)
close this folderChapter 9 - Tools and implements
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentTillage implements
View the documentInterculture operation tools
View the documentHarvesting tools:
View the documentPostharvest tools and implements
View the documentMiscellaneous tools


In the Upper Himalayas, varied topographic and agro-climatic conditions ranging from subtropical to cool temperatures permit the cultivation of a wide variety of crops and fruits. However, agriculture in general is handicapped due to steep and hilly terrain, hazards of climate, uneconomic scattered holdings comprising of shallow and stony soils. The tools and implements used are of a primitive nature throughout the Indian Himalayan range(s). Traditional farm tools and implements for self sustenance have been developed/modified through experience over generations to meet emerging socio-economic and farming challenges. The type of soils and topographic conditions largely influence the type, size and shape of particular tillage tools/implements. The following is a list of local tools/implements found in various regions of temperate Himalayas.

A brief discussion of the most commonly used indigenous implements are given in table 1.