Cover Image
close this bookLivestock and Poultry Production (IIRR, 1992, 106 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentMessage
View the documentWorkshop to revise the agroforestry technology information kit (ATIK)
View the documentList of participants
Open this folder and view contentsCurrent program thrusts in upland development
View the documentSimple agro-livestock technology (SALT-2)
View the documentIntensive feed garden
View the documentCharacteristics of forage grasses for IFG
View the documentPlant-based livestock medication
View the documentSmall-scale cattle production
View the documentForced-feeding technology (including Batangas cattle-fattening system)
View the documentNative pig production
View the documentPig-feed garden
View the documentLow-cost goat housing
View the documentImproving the native chicken
View the documentFamily Backyard Poultry project
View the documentHow to raise ducks
View the documentNative bee production
View the documentOn-farm fodder sources in agroforestry (trees and grasses)
View the documentOff-farm fodder sources in agroforestry (trees and grasses)

Forced-feeding technology (including Batangas cattle-fattening system)

Forced-feeding technology

Forced-feeding technology is used in fattening draft cattle in confinement in a shorter period of time. Known as supak method, this apparently indigenous practice from Batangas is done 60-90 days before the livestock is sold. The feed composition makes for rapid increase in body weight (because of high feed conversion rate) and improved meat quality.

Below are the steps in preparing the feed mixture.

1. Get about 20 kg of fresh leaves of ipil-ipil (L. leucocephala) or acid ipil-ipil (L. diversifolia) and chop them Remove the midribs.

2. Pound the leaves with mortar and pestle and put these into a mixing container.

3. Add 1-2 kg of fine rice bran, 15-19 liters clean water and a handful (0.1 kg) of salt. Mix the ingredients thoroughly.

This mixture is fed to the cattie using a bamboo tube (as shown above) once or twice daily. The animal is also provided full feeding of soilage. Provide water at all times. Later, when the animal is used to the feed mixture (slop), it will eat it on a pail.

Feeding the animal six times a day gives the best results.

7:00 a.m. - fodder or cut grasses
10:00 a.m. - forced feeding
12:00 noon - fodder
3:00 p.m. - fodder
5:00 p.m. - forced feeding
8:00 p.m. - fodder

Cattle with poor appetite should also be forced-fed regularly in addition to fodder provided to them. Any of the following mixtures is divided into two and given to animals twice a day:

· Pounded ipil-ipil leaves (15-20 kg) + water (15 li) + granulated table salt (0.1 kg)

· Finely chopped gabi tuber the kind which is edible to man (15-20 kg) + water (15 li) + table salt (0.1 kg)

· Rice bran (2-3 kg) + water (15 li) + table salt (0.1 kg)

Proper position of animal when forced feeding. The head is level with the animal's back. The animal can be killed by improper forced feeding. The slop goes into its lungs instead of the stomach, which causes pneumonia. If the animal chokes, lower the head immediately to save R.

Proper position of animal when forced feeding

Case study of batangas cattle fattening system

Backyard cattle fattening is important to the livestock industry in the Philippines. It can provide farmers year round work and additional income. Batangas farmers have a unique cattle fattening system. They use cheap farm by-products which ordinarily go to waste. The technology of Batangas farmers include:

1. Selecting feeder stock

Age - Two to three-year old animals with a body weight of 225 to 300 kg digest more efficiently. They eat a large variety of feed and roughages that are available.

Sex - Steers (castrated males) are preferred to heifers. Steers are easier to manage; they gain weight and grow faster.

Breed - Improved breed like crosses (mestisos) gain weight faster. They are adaptable to local climatic and feed conditions. Majority of Batangas farmers like to raise Batangas steers weighing 320 to 468 kilograms.

Health condition - A healthy animal is alert, active, has bright eyes, smooth haircoat, moist muzzle and have no physical defects. Be sure that the animal is vaccinated against foot and mouth diseases and/or hemorrhagic septicemia. The animal should be free from external and internal parasites.

2. Where to buy the stock

Farmer's farm
Livestock market
Private ranch at the onset of the dry season.

3. Feed requiroments

Cattle can be fattened on an all roughages or grasses ration. Young fattener consumes about 22-25 kg of silage/day under ordinary conditions. Sources of fodder feeds are mostly grown on the farm.

Restrict animal movement at all times to gain weight quickly.

Provide clean drinking water at all times. Water helps in feed digestion and ensures nourishment.

Provide table salt (granulated) at the rate of 30-50 grams per head daily.

Force-feed (supak) concentrate mixture at Ieast twice a day. They are mixed with pounded ipil-ipil leaves at the rate of 10-20 kg/day.




Copra meal



Rice bran



Salt/powdered shell/ground limestone



Dried chicken manure





4. Bathe the animal during hot weather to enable them to overcome heat stress.

5. Housing and equipment

Minimum housing space is 2.5 to 4 sq m per head for sheltered feeding. Others provide 5 meters/head for loafing area. A Cattle shed of local materials (bamboo, nipa wood) is enough to protect the animal from extreme heat and cold. Provide each animal its own stall, feed through or bunk, standing space and floor drain at the back. It is also advisable to use cement floor to ease cleaning and drainage.
Place a rope halter on the head of the animal at all times.

6. Market fattened Cattle at the end of the fattening period (two to six months).