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close this bookBasic Husbandry Practices and Veterinary Care (IIRR, 1996, 60 p.)
View the documentForeword
View the documentBody parts of farm animals
View the documentNames of farm animals
View the documentFarm animals and their young
View the documentLivestock production
View the documentReproduction of poultry
View the documentBreeding
View the documentCare of calves and kids at birth
View the documentCare of piglets
View the documentFeeding orphaned animals
View the documentNutrition
View the documentDeworming
View the documentVaccination
View the documentCastration
View the documentHoof trimming
View the documentDehorning
View the documentClipping milk teeth of piglets
View the documentDisinfection of pen and equipment
View the documentWaste management and disposal
View the documentPesticides


Castration is the process of removing the testicles of male animals.

Reasons for castration

- Improves quality of meat.
- Prevents male animals from acquiring undesirable sexual traits.
- Makes the animal easier to handle.
- Prevents undesirable breeding.
- Aids in growth and fattening.

Scrotum area

Preferred age for castration

- Bull - 2-3 months old
- Buck - 2 months old
- Piglet - 2 weeks old
- Boars can be castrated when no longer needed as breeders.

Young animals are easier to handle. Their wounds bleed less and heal faster.

Caution: Avoid castrating sick or stressed animals, e.g., animals with fever or recently vaccinated animals. If possible, perform this minor surgical operation during the dry season. Wounds heal faster during the dry season.

Prepare the following before castration:

- Blade or sharp knife
- Forceps
- Thread (if needed)
- Cotton
- 70% alcohol
- Diluted iodine
- Pine tar
- Fly repellents (e.g., Negasunt, Gusanex)

Castrating large animals

1. Properly restrain the animal. Refer to booklet on Restraining animals and simple treatments.
2. Wash your hands with clean water and soap.
3. Disinfect the surgical instruments and the scrotal area with 70% alcohol or diluted iodine.

4. Hold testicles in between the thumb and forefinger, pressing one toward the bottom of the scrotum.

5. Using a razor blade or sharp knife, make a small incision at the bottom of the scrotum. The incision should be just long enough for the testicle to be removed.

6. Pull the sac containing the testicle out of the scrotum.

7. Clamp the blood vessels with 2 pairs of forceps. Or, use an emasculator or long-nose pliers. If instruments are not available, make a knot with a thread around blood vessel.

8. After two minutes, remove the first forcep and make a knot with sterilized thread around the cord.

9. Cut the cord 1-1.5 cm below the second forceps. Wait for 1-2 minutes before removing the second forcep.

10. If available, apply a fly repellent, such as Pine tar, Negasunt or Gusanex.
11. Follow the same procedure for the other testicle.
12. Inject 1,500 I.U. of antitetanus toxin serum into the hip muscle to prevent tetanus.

Procedure for castrating piglets

This procedure applies only to piglets 2-3 weeks old.

1. Properly restrain the animal. A small piglet can also be held on a table top on its back

2. Wash your hands with clean water and soap.

3. Wash and disinfect the area around the testicle.

4. Push each testicle outward.

5. Make an incision at the bottom of each of the scrotums.

6. Pull the cord out.

7. Clamp with one pair of forceps.
8. Cut the cord below the forceps.
9. Remove forceps after 1-2 minutes.
10. Apply fly repellent.
11. Provide a clean and dry pen for the newly castrated piglets.

Castration of piglet can be done without forceps. After pulling the cord outward, twist the cord several times. Cut the cord when it turns white.

Care for newly castrated animals

- Always keep pens dry and clean.
- Provide clean water and nutritious feeds.

Indigenous practices in castrating animals

Pukpok system

An old way of castrating bulls by farmers is the pukpok system or the crushing, method. They use either a big stone or a hard piece of wood to crush the testicles.

Full moon

Farmers prefer their animals castrated during a full moon. They believe that the wounds will heal faster.

Hot day

Farmers throw testicles removed during castration on top of roofs made of galvanized iron. They believe that the testicles dry up faster and so will the castration wound.

Full moon and hot day

Wood ash

Ash is applied to castration wounds.

Hot cooked rice

Some farmers apply hot cooked rice to castration wounds to stop bleeding and, at the same time, to reduce the risk of bacterial infection.