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close this bookRegenerative Agriculture Technologies for the Hill Farmers of Nepal: An Information Kit (IIRR, 1992, 210 p.)
close this folderCropping systems and post-harvest technologies
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View the documentLentil (Sikhar) Cultivation for Grain and Fodder Froduction
View the documentSarkari Seto: A Traditional Potato Variety for the Hills
View the documentGrain Storage Management for the Hill Farmers
View the documentLong- Term Storage of Seed Potatoes Using the Diffused Light Storage Principle

Grain Storage Management for the Hill Farmers

All farmers would like: Hard work .... A good crop .... Plenty to eat


Food is the source of life. Farmers need grains not only for food but also for seed, animal feed and to meet occasional cash needs.

Between 15 and 20 percent of grain production is lost as it passes through different post-harvest operations. Storage loss alone is in the range of 7-10 percent. Nationwide losses cost crores of Rs. (4050).

Grain storage losses can be effectively prevented by adopting simple, practical and low cost storage management practices.


1. Grain is a living thing and living seeds store better and resist deterioration. Broken grains are prone to insect attack.

2. Moisture is a dangerous enemy of stored grain. Similarly, hot temperature and high humidity are not good for proper grain storage. When cold and hot air meet in the grain storage, condensation starts causing the grain to rot and cake.

3. Pest infestation can start right in the field. Insects are prolific breeders. Within 10 weeks, the offspring of one pair of weevil can number in the thousands.

Factors affecting grain storage


· Check the grain in the field before harvest to ensure that it is free of insects and diseases.

· Remove old grain and dirt from harvesting tools, sacks, dalo, etc. Clean and repair the storage structure before filling it with new grain.

· Harvest mature grains free of insects and diseases. Thresh, clean and dry the grain well (at least 3-4 days) before storing. Store only whole, mature and healthy grain.

· Unshelled maize can be dried and stored in improved cribs, suli, kunu or thangros. Shelled maize can be stored in Ghyampo, metal bins or plastic covered jute bags. Thangros and cribs should be built in areas with proper ventilation.

· Store seed grain and food grain separately.

· Sorghum and millets can also be stored in cribs. Use rat baffles in the Thangros to thwart rodents and insects.

· Malathion can be mixed with seed grain stores, but not in food grain stores.

· Do not mix or store new grain and old grain together.

· Do not keep sacks or bulk grain directly on the floor.

· Keep grain dry and cool. Storage bins should be placed so that proper ventilation can help to keep it cool.

· Improve your structure so that it keeps grain cool and dry and protects grains from rodents and moisture.

· Local herbs such as tinur, titepat, neem, bojo, baikano and other materials like wood ash can be used to help control pests.

· The storage structure and the surrounding area should be kept clean and free of rodents.

· Rat traps should be used regularly.

· Check grain regularly - weekly or fortnightly.

Grain storage management