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close this bookEthnoveterinary Medicine in Asia - Ruminants (IIRR, 1994, 143 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentCollaborating organizations
View the documentParticipants and workshop staff
View the documentHow to use this manual
View the documentLack of appetite
View the documentFever
View the documentCoughs and colds
View the documentDiarrhea
View the documentDehydration
View the documentBloat
View the documentConstipation
View the documentPoisoning
View the documentInternal parasites: Stomach and gut worms
View the documentLiverflukes
View the documentTick infestation
View the documentScabies (mange)
View the documentLice
View the documentFungus infections of the skin
View the documentInfectious diseases
View the documentFoot rot
View the documentEye diseases
View the documentWounds
View the documentBleeding
View the documentSnake bite
View the documentSprains
View the documentDifficulty in urinating
View the documentHousing
View the documentFeeding
View the documentMineral deficiency
View the documentBreeding
View the documentPregnancy and birthing
View the documentCare of mother animals after birthing
View the documentCare of newborn
View the documentUdder infection
View the documentDecreased milk flow


Follow all these recommendations for improved feeding of ruminants.

· Make water freely accessible to the animals all the time. Or give them as much water as they can drink 3 times a day.

· Give plenty of roughages such as straw and fresh grasses. In addition to grazing, provide small quantities of roughage at regular intervals. Regularly renew the left-over feeds with clean, fresh feed. Cut fodder and carry it to animals that are confined.

· As much as possible, also give quality feeds such as tender, leafy grass, Gliricidia leaves, Leucaena leucocephala leaves, jackfruit leaves and fruits and household or kitchen waste. See the table below of feeds and their nutritive values.

· Gather and store enough rice straw for feeding. Keep it for feeding during the dry season when grass is scarce. Keep the straw in a dry, well-ventilated place to avoid fungus and rodents.

· Give concentrate regularly, especially to dairy animals and mothers suckling their young. To make concentrate, mix 500 g of coconut cake (or other cake) with 500 g of good quality rice bran. Add about 50 g each of crushed limestone and fish meal. Mix all these materials with 1 cup of molasses and add this preparation to the feed. Use half this amount for sheep and goats. (Philippines, Sri Lanka. 1, 2, 3, 5)

· Watch the animals carefully and continuously. Adjust the feed requirements to suit the growth and reproductive stage of the animals. See the table below for good, cheap, and readily available sources of feed. Use these specially for young, pregnant, lactating and working animals.

Feeds rich in protein

Feeds rich in carbohydrates

Feeds rich in minerals

These help the animal grow faster and give more milk. They are also good for working animals and pregnant animals.

These provide energy, especially for work animals.

Minerals are especially important for animals that are pregnant, lactating or growing.

Acacia arabica leaves


Acacia pods

Acacia pods

Broken rice

All lentils and beans

Banyan tree (Ficus bengalensis) leaves

Brown sugar

Bone meal

Cassava leaves (dry)

Cane molasses

Centrosema spp. leaves

Chickpea hulls

Brown sugar

Crop fertilizers(Caution: Use only small amounts.)

Taro leaves

Cassava chips

Crushed shrimp and lobster shells


Castor leaves

Fish meal

Cottonseed cake



Cowpea beans

Corn straw

Oyster shells

Cynodon dactylon grass

Fresh coconut

Rice bran

Edible oil cakes

Millet straw


Fish meal


Fresh, green grass

Groundnut cake


Pigeonpea leaves and pods

Khajri leaves

Pineapple waste

Launaea pinnatifida

Rice leaves

Legume leaves, pods and straw

Rice straw

Lentil hulls

Rice bran

Leptadenia reticulate leaves

Saman pods


Sorghum stalk (dry)


leaves (dry)

Mango leaves


Neem leaves

Sugarcane tops

Palm kernel meal

Sweet sorghum

Groundnut meal

Wild hemp

Groundnut seed cake


Rice bean

Rubber seed meal

Sesame seed cake


Soybean meal

Sunflower meal

Wheat bran