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close this bookEthnoveterinary Medicine in Asia - Ruminants (IIRR, 1994, 143 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentCollaborating organizations
View the documentParticipants and workshop staff
View the documentHow to use this manual
View the documentLack of appetite
View the documentFever
View the documentCoughs and colds
View the documentDiarrhea
View the documentDehydration
View the documentBloat
View the documentConstipation
View the documentPoisoning
View the documentInternal parasites: Stomach and gut worms
View the documentLiverflukes
View the documentTick infestation
View the documentScabies (mange)
View the documentLice
View the documentFungus infections of the skin
View the documentInfectious diseases
View the documentFoot rot
View the documentEye diseases
View the documentWounds
View the documentBleeding
View the documentSnake bite
View the documentSprains
View the documentDifficulty in urinating
View the documentHousing
View the documentFeeding
View the documentMineral deficiency
View the documentBreeding
View the documentPregnancy and birthing
View the documentCare of mother animals after birthing
View the documentCare of newborn
View the documentUdder infection
View the documentDecreased milk flow

Udder infection

Udder infection (mastitis) and sore teats are common in milking ruminants. Prime milkers are more prone to udder infection. Animals with long teats may easily get teat infections.

Udder infection


· Cracked teats.
· Wounds, tenderness, swelling.
· Hard, knob-like, painful udder.
· Animal does not permit milking.
· Small curdles occur in milk.
· Udder feels hot (in severe mastitis).
· Milk can become watery or pus-like.



· Milking with the thumb inside the fist, touching the teat (see diagram in Decreased milk flow, page 141).

· Effect of cow pox or foot-and-mouth disease.

· Bad hygiene, leading to infection.

· Rough milking.

· Not fully draining the udder during milking.


· Practice good hygiene.
· Use proper milking methods.
· Completely drain the udder of milk during milking.
· Inspect the herd frequently.


Sore teats

· Gather fresh leaves of Ocimum sanctum, Ocimum basilicum or neem. Crush the leaves to obtain 10 ml juice. Mix with 80-100 g of butter or edible oil. Apply on teats 23 times a day until fully recovered. (India. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)


Use one of the following treatments.

· Gather 200 g each of fresh Ocimum sanctum (or Ocimum basilicum) and neem leaves. Boil in 500 ml of vegetable oil for 1 hour over a slow fire. Strain through a clean thick cloth. Store in a sterilized bottle.

After milking, inject 5 to 10 ml of this oil in affected quarters of the udder using a milk siphon. Do this twice a day until healed. (India. 1, 2, 3, 4)

· Massage the infected udder with lukewarm water. This helps especially in early cases to reduce the swelling. You can also add a handful of guava or neem leaves to the boiling water. (Philippines. 1, 2, 3, 4)

· Boil a bucket of water. Dip a thick cloth in the water while it is still hot. Wring out the excess water and hold the cloth on the udder. You can also add a handful of guava or neem leaves to the boiling water. (India. 1, 2, 3)

· Pound and boil equal amounts of Fumaria officinalis and Litsea sabifera leaves in enough water to make a paste. Add a pinch of baking powder. Apply the warm paste on the udder. (India. 1, 2, 3)

For initial stages of infection

· Grind together 1-2 ripe bananas, 2 tablespoons of powdered, dried turmeric rhizome and 1 teaspoon of salt. Give this mixture as feed in the morning and evening and again the following morning. (India. 1, 2.4)

@ Caution

· To prevent the infection from spreading, milk the healthy animals first, then the sick ones

· Practice full milking. Strip the udder completely.

· Wash your hands with soap before and after milking.

· Discard and destroy milk from infected udders.

· Use the siphon in the teat very carefully. If you have no siphon, use the end of a hollow feather. Boil it before using.