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close this bookEthnoveterinary Medicine in Asia - Ruminants (IIRR, 1994, 143 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentCollaborating organizations
View the documentParticipants and workshop staff
View the documentHow to use this manual
View the documentLack of appetite
View the documentFever
View the documentCoughs and colds
View the documentDiarrhea
View the documentDehydration
View the documentBloat
View the documentConstipation
View the documentPoisoning
View the documentInternal parasites: Stomach and gut worms
View the documentLiverflukes
View the documentTick infestation
View the documentScabies (mange)
View the documentLice
View the documentFungus infections of the skin
View the documentInfectious diseases
View the documentFoot rot
View the documentEye diseases
View the documentWounds
View the documentBleeding
View the documentSnake bite
View the documentSprains
View the documentDifficulty in urinating
View the documentHousing
View the documentFeeding
View the documentMineral deficiency
View the documentBreeding
View the documentPregnancy and birthing
View the documentCare of mother animals after birthing
View the documentCare of newborn
View the documentUdder infection
View the documentDecreased milk flow



· Defecation more frequent than normal.
· Loose feces that sometimes contain blood, mucus or both.
· Dry skin.
· Hindquarters are soiled.
· Animal stops chewing cud.
· Animal has dull and sunken eyes and does not move energetically.



· Sudden change in diet (especially from dry fodder diet to green fodder).
· Intestinal parasites like amoeba.
· Bacterial and viral diseases.
· Contaminated water.
· Overeating.


· Good hygiene and nutrition.

· Proper husbandry practices such as giving clean feed and water, keeping animal quarters and surroundings clean, etc.

· Do not graze the animal immediately after a rain or too early in the morning before the dew has dried.

· Do not provide drinking water immediately after giving legumes and green fodder as feed.

· Deworm the animals regularly. See Internal parasites, page 38.

· Vaccinate animals against rinderpest in areas where it is seasonally endemic.

@ Caution

· Watch out for rinderpest—bloody, foulsmelling, shooting diarrhea with high fever that affects many animals in the village. (See Infectious diseases).

· If there is chronic diarrhea with wasting away and no response to treatment, seek professional help.


Provide a soft, pulpy diet to animals with diarrhea. It is necessary to make the animal drink extra liquid to replace the liquid lost in the diarrhea. Diarrhea that lasts for 2 to 3 days may cause dehydration. This can lead to shock and then death. It is, therefore, necessary to make the animal drink more liquid.

Use any of the following drenches. The dosages of the treatments given below are for adult cattle or buffaloes.

Use half the amounts for calves, goats and sheep. Further drenches are described in Dehydration, page 18.

· Dissolve 1 teaspoon of salt and 4 teaspoons of sugar in 1 liter of water. Drench 2-3 times a day as needed. Continue giving the treatment for as long as the diarrhea lasts. (India. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

· Boil 1 handful of tea leaves in 1 liter of water. Strain, and add ½ handful of ground ginger rhizome to the liquid. Drench twice a day for 3-4 days. (India. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

· Grind ½ handful of fresh ginger rhizome and ½ handful of bishop's weed (Trachyspermum ami) seeds. Add this mixture and a handful of tea leaves to 1 liter of water and boil. Cool. Drench half of the amount in the morning and half of the amount in the evening. Repeat the next day until the diarrhea stops. (India. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

· Give the water from cooked rice mixed with 1 g of dried ginger rhizome powder to the animal to drink. Repeat 2 times a day. Give half the quantity for sheep and goats. (India. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

· Drench 500 ml to 1000 ml of young coconut water twice a day until the diarrhea stops. (Philippines, Thailand. 1, 2, 3)

Some treatments to help stop diarrhea are described below. As before, use half the dosages given below for calves, sheep and goats. Continue the treatment for as long as the diarrhea lasts.

· Mix 1 handful each of bishop's weed (Trachyspermum ami) seeds, dried or fresh ginger rhizome and cumin

(Cuminum cyminum) seeds with ½ handful fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seed powder. Mix with 50 g brown sugar to make bolus and feed by mouth twice a day for 2-3 days. (India. 1, 2, 3, 4)

· Boil ½ kg of fresh guava (Psidium guajava) leaves in 3 glasses of water. Drench twice a day. (Thailand. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

· Boil about 20 fresh star apple (Chrysophyllum cainito) leaves in 2 cups of water. Drench 3 times a day for 1-3 days. (Philippines. 1, 2, 3, 4)

· Grind coconut shell charcoal to a powder. Mix 1 cup with 500 ml of water. Drench 3 times a day for 3 days. (Philippines. 1, 2, 3, 4)

· Mix 5 to 10 crystals of potassium permanganate in 1 liter of water. Drench twice a day. (India. 1, 2, 3, 4)

· Drench the animal with any of the following ingredients in the amounts indicated, mixed in 300 to 400 ml of water: powdered chalk (4 g), kaolin earth (5 g), or potassium aluminum sulfate crystals (0.8 g).

· Crush 15 g each of the young fruits and roots of Momordica charantia to obtain the juice. Mix the juice into 1 liter of young coconut water and drench once a day for 3 days. (Philippines. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

· Prepare a decoction of 10 to 15 leaves of Psidium gunjava in 1 liter of water. Divide the liquid in 3 equal doses and give 3 doses per day for 5 days. (Philippines. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

Some further treatments to stop diarrhea are presented in the following table. All plant parts used in the treatments are dried and ground to powder form.

Mix the dosage indicated with 300 to 400 ml of water and drench with this amount twice a day for 3-5 days or as long as the diarrhea lasts.

Scientific name

Common name

Parts used


Acacia catechu


Sap lumps

0.8 9

Aegale marmelos

Bael fruit

Dried, ripe fruit

1.0 9

Cyperus rotundus

Nut grass

Dried roots

1.0 9

Holarrhena antidysenterica


Dry seeds and bark

3.0 9

Veronica anthelmentica


Dry seeds

3.0 9