|Small-Scale Processing of Fish (ILO - WEP, 1982, 140 p.)|
|CHAPTER II. SALTING - DRYING - FERMENTING|
|VII. FERMENTED FISH PRODUCTS|
VII.1.1. Makassar (Indonesia)
The fish species used in makassar are anchovies (Engraulis spp. and Stolephorus spp.). These are headed and placed in earthenware pots with an equal weight of salt. After three to four days, a red coloured rice product called angkhak is mixed with the fish and salt. Angkhak is made up of rice fermented with a mould organism imported from China (Monascus purpureus). Ragi (a Japanese preparation made from yeast and rice flour) is then added with spices. After a few days, the mixture becomes red and it is then packed into glass bottles for distribution. The composition of makassar fish includes, in most cases, 66% moisture, 16% protein, 1% fat and 17% ash.
Buro, which is made in the Philippines, is similar to makassar in that it is a rice-fish product mixed with angkhak. A fish often used in the production of buro is milk fish (Chanos chanos), a commonly cultured brackish water fish of the region. Freshwater species such as dalag (Ophiocephalus spp.) can also be used.
VII.1.2. Colombo cure (India)
This processing method, used in the South of India, utilises mackerel (Rastrelliger spp.), seer (Scomberomorus spp.) and large non-fatty sardines. The fish, which should be very fresh, are first gutted, gilled and washed in sea water. They are then mixed with dry salt in large concrete tanks, using a ratio of 1 part salt to 3 parts fish. Malabar tamarind, which is the dried fruit pulp of tamarind (called garikapuli, (Garcinia cambogia)) is added to the mixture in order to increase the acidity level of the fish preparation. As the fish tend to float on the blood pickle produced, they are weighed down with mats on which stones are placed. The fish can remain in the brine for two to four months prior to packing tightly in wooden barrels topped up with the blood pickle. The mango wood barrels, used for this purpose, are very large and can contain up to 5000 large mackerel weighing up to half a tonne. The storage life is well over a year and the product has a peculiar fruity odour. The flesh is flaky but firm. From a nutritional point of view, this product is very economical since the protein lost in the blood pickle is not wasted. After the fish have been unpacked from the barrels, the remaining pickle is used as a fish sauce.