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close this bookSpecial Public Works Programmes - SPWP - Planting Trees - An Illustrated Technical Guide and Training Manual (ILO - UNDP, 1993, 190 p.)
close this folder1. Planning a plantation
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1.1 What regeneration method to use?
View the document1.2 What species to establish?
View the document1.3 Whether to plant a single tree species or a mixture of several?
View the document1.4 What type of planting stock to use?
View the document1.5 What planting pattern to use and how many seedlings to plant?
View the document1.6 When to plant?
View the document1.7 How to protect the seedlings?
View the document1.8 The plantation plan

1.8 The plantation plan

When all decisions are made and the basic information collected, a plantation plan should be prepared. It should consist of a plantation record and a map. An example of a form to use for the plantation record is given on the opposite page.

The map is the main tool for planning (guidelines on how to draw a map are given in technical sheet 1).

If you want to create a plantation with different species mixed in groups, you have to decide where to plant the different species to best utilize the varying site conditions within the plantation area. This should be marked on the map.

Mark also access roads, suitable seedling depots (with water and shade) and where to start planting. In dry areas start the annual plantation work at the driest part of the site. This will give the seedlings as long a time as possible before the beginning of the dry season. If you have decided that the best quality seedlings, or larger holes or other special measures are needed in certain areas, this should be clearly indicated on the map.

Plantation record

Village: Kovali

District Tiruchirappalli

Site name:

Area: 35 ha

Batcha plain Owner:

Kovali village community

Type of plantation:

Soil conservation/fodder

Previous vegetation:

Waste land with scattered bushes (Cassia and Prosopis)



Main soil type:

Sandy loam

Method of clearing:

No clearing needed

Risk/need for protection:

Grazing, termites


Truck hired from Mr. Schultz

Tools required:

20 planting hoes (ordered 12.1.93)

Workdays required:

See attached workplan

Date of planting:

26 April to 20 May 1993

Nursery of origin:

Keela Kolathur village nursery


4x4 metres

Water conservation measures:



Not applied

Species and number of plants:

Local name

Botanical name


Acacia leocophloea



Albizia lebbek



Albizia amara


Seed lots No.:

Weeding 1:
Weeding 2:
Weeding 3:

Survival count:
Average plant height:
Protection applied:

Area to be planted

Map of the area to be planted

Common mistakes when planning

Not enough attention to discussions on the needs, benefits and potential conflicts in connection with tree planting project. No agreement on the rights and duties of all involved, particularly concerning protection. As a result, a dissatisfied group sabotages the project (uproots trees, burns plantation or lets cattle destroy the trees, etc.).

Species are not well suited for the purpose of plantation. Suitable local species are not utilized because there is no information in books and manuals. Local people's knowledge of sites and trees not used.

Lack of coordination between nurseries and the plantation programme.

Need for protection is underestimated.